State and Local Policy Database

State Government Summary

State governments can advance policies and programs that impact many sectors. These initiatives complement the existing landscape of utility programs, leveraging resources from the state’s public and private sectors to generate energy and cost savings that benefit consumers. State governments can work directly with local citizens, spurring investments in energy efficiency by offering financial incentives. State financial incentives are an important instrument for increasing the use of energy efficient technologies that provide benefits to both residents and the state overall. The incorporation of a financial incentive can make energy efficiency investments more alluring for private and public entities, particularly by lowering inhibitive upfront costs. Financial incentives also complement other efficiency policies such as appliance standards and energy codes, overcoming market barriers for cost-effective technologies.

A state’s own facilities, fleets, and operations also offer a unique opportunity for state governments to lead by example, incorporating energy efficiency measures into their facilities and achieving significant energy cost savings. State governments have often become leaders in energy efficiency by taking action through legislation or executive order to improve efficiency in their own buildings and vehicles. These policies help improve the environmental and economic performance of states’ assets while promoting energy conservation to the broader public.

The Alabama state government leads by example, requiring energy-efficient fleets and coordinating an energy savings performance contracting program. In addition, the state funds several loan programs. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at the University of Alabama.

Alaska offers several consumer incentives for energy efficiency upgrades, including a program for energy-efficient upgrades in rural Alaskan community buildings. The state government by example by requiring efficient public buildings and benchmarking energy consumption in these facilities. Alaska is one of the few states to require the release of residential building energy data at the time of sale. The state has one research center focused on energy efficiency.

Arizona offers a property tax exemption for energy-efficient building components, although other consumer incentives are limited. The state government leads by example by setting stringent energy standards for public buildings and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

Arkansas offers several consumer incentives for energy efficiency investments, including PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging energy savings performance contracts. There are no major research centers focused on energy efficiency. 

California offers several incentives for energy efficiency investments to schools, industry, residential consumers, and the public sector, as well as PACE financing. The state government leads by example by benchmarking energy usage in state buildings, requiring energy-efficient fleets and buildings, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. California is one of the few states to adopt a commercial building energy disclosure requirement, as well as a residential multifamily disclosure requirement. The state has several research and development institutions focused on energy efficiency investments.

Colorado offers several consumer incentives for energy efficiency, as well as PACE financing. The state government leads by example through an energy savings target in public facilities, benchmarking energy usage in state buildings, requiring energy-efficient fleets, and encouraging energy savings performance contracting. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

Connecticut offers several financial incentives for consumers, including rebates, loans, and PACE financing. The state government leads by example by benchmarking energy usage in state buildings, requiring efficient public buildings and vehicles, and encouraging energy savings performance contracting. Connecticut does not have a building energy-use disclosure policy. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at several institutions within the state.

Delaware offers several consumer loans for energy-efficient investments. The state government leads by example by benchmarking energy usage in state buildings, encouraging energy savings performance contracts, and requiring energy-efficient fleets and buildings. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

The District of Columbia offers a grant to help nonprofits make energy-efficient investments, as well as PACE financing. The District leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets and benchmarking public buildings as well as privately-owned commercial and multifamily residential buildings. DC funds research focused on energy efficiency through its Green Building Fund Grant Program.

Florida offers a grant and a rebate program for energy efficiency investments. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient fleets and encouraging the use of energy service performance contracts for public buildings. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at several universities in the state.

Georgia does not offer any state-funded consumer incentives for energy efficiency investments. It enables PACE financing, but it does not have any active PACE programs. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient fleets and buildings and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at two institutions.

Hawaii offers a loan to homeowners, businesses, nonprofits, and owners of multifamily buildings for investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency. The state government leads by example by benchmarking public buildings, requiring energy-efficient fleets, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Hawaii is one of the few states with a residential energy-use disclosure policy. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at the University of Hawaii. In addition, Hawaii's state energy office recognizes and provides technical assistance to businesses for sustainable energy practices through its Green Business Program.

Idaho offers several consumer incentives for energy efficiency investments, including a tax deduction, a loan, and a grant. The state government leads by example by encouraging energy savings performance contracting, although it did allow its public building requirements to sunset and does not have benchmarking requirements for public buildings or fuel efficiency requirements for fleets. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies.

Illinois offers a variety of financial incentives to encourage energy efficiency. It enables PACE financing but does not have any active PACE programs. The state government leads by example by requiring efficient government fleets and public buildings, benchmarking public buildings, and encouraging energy savings performance contracting. Research focused on energy efficiency occurs at several research centers in Illinois.

Indiana offers a residential tax credit for insulation installations. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at Purdue University Calumet. 

Iowa runs two revolving loan programs and one grant program for consumer energy efficiency investments. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and regularly benchmarking their energy use, however, it does not allow energy savings performance contracting. Two research and development institutions focus on energy efficiency within the state.

Kansas does not have any solely state-administered incentives for consumer energy efficiency investments. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Kansas is one of the few states to adopt a residential energy-use disclosure requirement. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

Kentucky offers a variety of financial incentives for energy efficiency investments, as well as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Energy efficiency research is conducted at the University of Louisville's Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research.

Louisiana runs the Home Energy Loan Program, but other incentives for energy-efficient investments have expired. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and fleets and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. No public research centers have a focus on energy efficiency.

Maine offers several financial incentives for consumer energy efficiency investments. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and fleets and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Maine is one of the few states to adopt a residential energy use disclosure policy. Research focused on energy efficiency occurs at the Maine Technology Institute.

Maryland offers a variety of incentives for energy-efficient investments, as well as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Two research centers in Maryland focus on energy efficiency.

Massachusetts offers a variety of tax incentives and grant, rebate, bond programs to encourage consumer investments in energy efficiency. It enables PACE financing but does not have any active PACE programs. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Massachusetts is one of the few states to require the release of residential building energy data at the time of closing. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at several institutions in the state. 

Michigan leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and requiring the use of energy savings performance contracts. The state offers loan and grant programs for energy efficiency investments, including PACE financing. 

Minnesota offers multiple loan programs for energy efficiency investments as well as PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

Mississippi offers a loan program for energy efficiency investments, as well as a public-sector lease program for energy-efficient equipment. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at Mississippi State University.

Missouri offers several loans for energy efficiency investments, a personal tax deduction for home energy audits and energy efficiency improvements, and PACE financing. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and fleets and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at two institutions in the state.

The state offers several incentives for energy-efficient investments. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. 

The state runs the Dollar and Energy Savings Loan Program and benchmarks energy use in public buildings, but it has not pursued other lead by example initiatives. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at several institutions.

The state offers several consumer incentives for energy efficiency investments, including a wide-reaching property tax abatement for green buildings. The state government leads by example by requiring energy efficient buildings, benchmarking of energy use in public buildings, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. 

The state offers several financial incentives for energy efficiency investments, including PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring efficient buildings and fleets, benchmarking public buildings, and encouraging energy savings performance contracts. 

The state offers grants and loans for energy efficiency investments, as well as PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring the benchmarking of energy use in public buildings and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at the Edison Innovation Clean Energy Fund.

New Mexico offers financial incentives for energy efficiency investments. It enables PACE financing but does not have any active PACE programs. The state government leads by example by requiring efficient buildings and fleets, benchmarking public buildings, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts.

New York’s state government leads in its commitment to energy efficiency. The state offers several financial incentives for energy efficiency, including PACE financing. The New York state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets, and by encouraging energy savings performance contracting. New York was the first state to pass a residential energy use disclosure requirement and has several major research programs devoted to energy efficiency research, including programs run through NYSERDA. 

North Carolina offers financial incentives for energy efficiency, although several were discontinued recently. The state government leads by example by requiring efficient buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use in public buildings, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

The state offers one grant for consumer energy efficiency projects, and does not actively lead by example. There are no research centers focused on energy efficiency within the state.

Ohio offers several incentives for energy-efficient investments, including PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring the benchmarking of energy use in public buildings and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at the Center for Energy, Sustainability, and the Environment at Ohio State University.

Oklahoma offers incentives for consumer investments in energy efficiency. The state government used to lead by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging energy savings performance contracting, however, these programs ended in 2016. There are no major research centers focused on energy efficiency.

The state offers a variety of financial incentives for energy-efficient investments, including PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

The state invests in efficiency projects several grant, loan, and financing programs. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Research focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

The state devotes a portion of Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative revenues to programs for energy efficiency upgrades. In addition, the state has an active PACE financing program. The state government leads by example by requiring efficient public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging energy savings performance contracts. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at the Sustainable Energy Program at the University of Rhode Island Outreach Center.

South Carolina has several program targeted at energy-efficient investments. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging energy savings performance contracts. There are no major research centers focused on energy efficiency in the state.

The state does not offer financial incentives for energy efficiency. South Dakota is one of the few states to require residential energy use disclosure. The state government leads by example by requiring the benchmarking of energy use in public buildings. There are no major research centers focused on energy efficiency in the state.

The state offers a variety of financial incentives for energy efficiency. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use in public buildings, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. The state has several major research centers focused on energy efficiency.

The state offers a major loan program for energy efficiency investments - Texas LoanSTAR - as well as PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy efficient public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use in state buildings, and promoting the use of energy savings performance contracts. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at several institutions in the state.

The state offers financial incentives for energy-efficient investments, including PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at several institutions in the state.

The state offers several incentives for energy-efficient investments. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use in public buildings, and encouraging energy savings performance contracting. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at the University of Vermont Smart Grid Research Center.

The state offers a variety of energy efficiency incentives. The state government leads by example by benchmarking energy use and encouraging the use of energy service performance contracts for public buildings. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at two institutions in the state.

The state offers significant incentives for energy efficiency investments. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets, benchmarking energy use, and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Washington is one of the few states to require commercial building energy use disclosure. Research focused on energy-efficiency is conducted at the Smart Buildings Center and Washington State University's Energy Program.

The state does not offer financial incentives for energy efficiency, nor does it promote energy efficiency in public facilities. Research focused on efficient vehicles is conducted at the West Virginia University Energy Institute.

The state runs a major revolving loan program to help manufacturers invest in energy efficiency, as well as PACE financing. The state government leads by example by requiring energy-efficient public buildings and fleets and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Energy efficiency research is conducted at several institutions within the state.

The state offers several consumer incentives to encourage energy-efficient investments. The state government encourages the use of energy savings performance contracts but does not otherwise lead by example. There are no research centers focused on energy efficiency within the state.