State and Local Policy Database

Tailpipe Emission Standards

In 2004, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted a rule requiring automakers to begin in the 2009 model year (MY) to phase in lower-emitting cars and trucks that will collectively emit 22% fewer greenhouse gases than 2002 vehicles in MY 2012 and 30% fewer in MY 2016. A suite of other states opted to sign on to California's more stringent standards. In 2012, CARB adopted new GHG standards for model years 2017 to 2025. Federal standards were subsequently finalized, bringing nationwide standards in line with California standards. However, California has, in addition, and updated zero-emission vehicle program that requires increasing production of plug-in and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. The GHG reductions are expected to be achieved largely, though not entirely, through improved vehicle efficiency, so these standards are in effect energy efficiency policies. Several technologies stand out as providing significant, cost-effective reductions in emissions. Among others, these include the optimization of valve operation, turbocharging, improved multi-speed transmissions, and improved air conditioning systems.

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Arizona has no policy in place or proposed.

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The 2002 passage of the Pavley Bill in California was the first time that a law in the United States addressed the issue of greenhouse gas emissions from cars and light trucks. In 2004, California adopted a new set of vehicle emission standards to implement the Pavley law. The regulations require automakers to produce vehicles that will, on average, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 30% from 2002 levels by 2016. Increased efficiency through the use of improved vehicle technology is expected to be the primary method for obtaining these reductions. Several other states have adopted California’s emissions program.

California’s vehicle emission standards were harmonized with the federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas programs upon the adoption of new, more stringent federal fuel economy standards in April 2010 for model years 2012-2016. California is also working with the US.  California standards for this period will either coincide with federal standards or may be stronger. In 2012, the California Air Resources Board adopted new GHG standards for model years 2017 to 2025 calling for a fleet-wide average between 48.7 and 49.7 miles per gallon by 2025. California also has  an updated zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) program that requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

In 2008, California adopted new GHG regulations to reduce emissions through the fuel efficiency improvement of tractor-trailers. Between 2010 and 2020, tractor-trailers are subject to stringent fuel economy regulations.

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Connecticut adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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Delaware adopted California's clean car program in December 2010.

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DC adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. DC has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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Maine adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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On April 24th 2007, Government Martin O’Malley signed the Clean Cars bill into law in Maryland committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Massachusetts adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2006, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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In January 2006, New Jersey adopted rules to implement the California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program beginning in 2009. These rules implement the Air Pollution Control Act provisions at N.J.S.A. 26:2C-8.15, which require the Department to promulgate rules to implement the California LEV program in New Jersey. The New Jersey program contains three components: vehicle emission standards, fleet wide emission requirements, and a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) sales requirement. The rules will require automakers to reduce fleet-wide greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicles they sell in New Jersey 30% by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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No policy in place or proposed.

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New York adopted California's Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gases from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted a Zero-Emission Vehiclefornia (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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Oregon adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2006, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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Pennsylvania adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 1998. The California standards went into effect in 2006 with Pennsylvania committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016.

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Rhode Island adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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Vermont adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

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Washington adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016.

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