State and Local Policy Database

Transportation System Efficiency

Sound land use planning is vital to support alternatives to driving in the United States. Energy-efficient transportation is inherently tied to the integration of transportation and land use policies, and for a state to reduce vehicle miles travelled, it must have an approach to planning that successfully addresses land use and transportation considerations simultaneously.

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: The 2016 Alabama Statewide Freight Plan identifies the major transportation routes and infrastructure for road and rail freight, but it does not include efficiency performance measures. One innovative freight efficiency program the state has implemented is delivery space booking systems, which reserves a parking space for a specific vehicle to load or unload freight during a specific time period. The systems help reduce fuel consumption, environmental impacts, and network congestion, specifically in urban areas.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration

Arizona passed the “Growing Smarter” Act in 1998 and the “Growing Smarter Plus” Act in 2000 to address sprawl-related issues and to provide communities the means with which to shape their future growth. These acts require that each municipality create and submit a comprehensive plan that reflects public opinion and also that each municipality submit their plan to regional planning offices. In 2007, the state established a “Governor’s Growth Cabinet” to more effectively coordinate interagency spending and planning according to the principles outlined in the “Growing Smarter” Act. 

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No finalized freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration

California has identified smart growth and transportation system efficiency strategies as a major component of its plans to implement AB32, which requires a 25% reduction from 1990 levels in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. In 2008, California passed SB 375, requiring that the Air Resources Board (ARB), in consultation with the Metropolitan Planning Organizations, set regional goals for greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles.  Regional transportation plans will need to incorporate those targets, and Regional Housing Needs Assessments in turn will have to be aligned with the land use component of the transportation plans. SB 375 also relaxes the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)review process] for housing projects that are consistent with plans to meet regional greenhouse gas reduction goals and ensures adequate inter-agency cooperation in the development of the regional plans.

VMT Targets: ARB adopted final targets, expressed as percent per capita changes in emissions for each region, in September, 2010.

Complete Streets: California also adopted AB 1358 in 2008, a bill that mandates municipalities to create long-term plans that incorporate “complete streets” goals for the physical development of their respective communities. From January 2011 onwards, city or county legislative bodies must “plan for a balanced, multimodal transportation network that meets the needs of all users of streets, roads, and highways, defined to include motorists, pedestrians, bicyclists, children, persons with disabilities, seniors, movers of commercial goods, and users of public transportation, in a manner that is suitable to the rural, suburban, or urban context of the general plan.” A major objective of complete streets requirements is to expand the use of non-auto modes of transportation and thereby help to reduce vehicle miles traveled.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: California has a freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network and establishes an aggressive goal for the freight industry of near zero emissions status by 2050. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The state has implemented a complete streets policy (HB 1147) to promote the use of alternative transportation by providing a comprehensive network of roads and streets.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Colorado has a state freight plan, but it does not identify a multimodal freight network or include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Connecticut’s Conservation and Development plan outlines six growth management principles that aim to coordinate future development and to provide valuable planning resources for municipalities across the state. These six principles outline, among other considerations, the need to redevelop and revitalize areas with existing infrastructure and to concentrate development around transportation hubs and corridors.

In 2008, the state senate passed SB 39, calling for the establishment of a Responsible Growth Cabinet to review “regionally significant projects” and to ensure that all future development occurs according to the six growth management principles.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2009, the state adopted a complete streets policy (Public Act 09-154) to ensure that all road projects accommodate all users.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No finalized freight plan in place. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Delaware has required local communities to submit comprehensive plans since the inception of the Shaping Delaware’s Future Act in 1995. In 2001, Delaware enacted the “Livable Delaware” initiative, which included legislation to provide funds and planning resources to municipalities for the creation of comprehensive growth plans. The initiative now includes a statute to establish a governor’s advisory council to coordinate development efforts and the creation of a realty transfer tax fund to finance the stewardship of undeveloped land in the state.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2009, the state adopted a complete streets policy to promote safe and equal access for all users.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: The District of Columbia's Zoning Regulations (DCMR Title 11) include numerous provisions to encourage sustainable, compact, accessible development. These include density bonuses in commercial corridors and downtown; reduction of parking requirements in transit-adjacent areas; numerous mixed-use zones; requirements for both short- and long-term bicycle parking; allowance of accessory dwelling units and small-scale commercial activity in lower-density residential zones. 

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: DC Department of Transportation has a complete streets policy in place that accomodates all modes of transportation in the maintenance and construction of roads.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: The District of Columbia has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: In 2008, Florida enacted House Bill 697 which outlined detailed specific requirements for future comprehensive plans. All future comprehensive plans must include strategies that reduce urban sprawl and transportation strategies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: State Statute 335.065 mandates the  incorporation of complete streets principles into road project planning and maintenance.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Florida has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Georgia adopted a complete streets policy in 2012 to incorporate bicycle, pedestrian, and transit accommodations into transportation infrastructure projects.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Georgia has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: In 1961 Hawaii become the first state to implement growth management legislation in the United States when it adopted the State Land Use Law. The purpose of the law was to limit development of scattered subdivisions which in turn led to poorly planned public amenities and increased conversion of prime agricultural land for residential uses. Administration of the regulation is overseen by the state Land Use Commission, which determines district boundaries and also approves the implementation of new development projects. All state lands are classified as one of four districts for the purpose of regulation: urban, rural, agricultural and conservation.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2009, the state adopted SB 718, which included complete streets language calling on county transportation departments to improve access and mobility for all pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users and motorists.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Idaho has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Illinois adopted Public Act 095-065 in 2007 which mandates that planning for bicycle and pedestrian ways must be incorporated into state-funded transportation programs and plans. 

The state also adopted the Business Location Efficiency Incentive Act in 2007, which provides businesses located near affordable housing and transit with tax credits.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Illinois Public Act 095-065 calls for full consideration to be given to bicycle and pedestrian faclities in the planning of road development.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Illinois has a state freight plan, but it does not identify a multimodal freight network nor include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The state DOT has a complete streets policy in place to accomodate multiple modes of transportation on streets.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Indiana has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: The state of Iowa enacted S.F. 2389 in April 2010. The bill requires state agencies and local governments that undertake land-use planning and resource management to plan for future growth so as to promote increased energy efficiency and the location of new and existing developments near transportation hubs. As a result, state, municipal and inter-agency coordination is required.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Iowa has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Kansas has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Kentucky has a state freight plan, but it has not been updated since 2007 to meet federal requirements, and it does not identify a multimodal freight network nor include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Louisiana’s complete streets policy, adopted in 2010, calls for “a comprehensive, integrated, connected transportation network for Louisiana that balances access, mobility, health and safety needs of motorists, transit users, bicyclists, and pedestrians of all ages and abilities.”

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Louisiana has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Maine adopted a Growth Management Act in 1987 that aimed to encourage growth in certain areas of the state while also planning for and financing an efficient system of public facilities and amenities that would cater to added development. The Act also encouraged municipalities to plan for future growth by developing comprehensive local plans while keeping the regional impact in perspective. To encourage coordinated development by municipalities, counties and regions, the state has developed a fund disbursement system that gives preference to multi-municipal planning efforts. The state also implemented a complete streets policy in 2014 as a complement to their land use policies. 

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Maine has a state DOT policy help ensure that all users of Maine’s transportation system—our customers—including bicyclists, pedestrians, people of all ages and abilities, transit users, and motor vehicle users, have safe and efficient access to the transportation system

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Maine has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Like Oregon, Washington, California and Massachusetts, the state of Maryland is a leader in the implementation of smart growth policy. In 1992, the state passed the Economic Growth, Resource Protection and Planning Act as a means to coordinate planning priorities amongst state, regional and municipal government. The act mandates the consideration of conservation practices and transportation in the creation of comprehensive plans.

Maryland’s Smart Growth program, initiated in 1997, aims to promote development near transit hubs and other centers of activity. Policies to encourage this development include focusing state spending on existing centers and areas designated for growth, limiting road expansion in favor of public transit and promoting urban redevelopment. In 2001, Maryland state general assembly dedicated $500 million to the upgrade of mass transit service and infrastructure.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2005, Maryland implemented state code § 2-602, which requires that the needs of bicyclists and pedestrians be considered when creating transportation plans. All future plans must also ensure that pedestrian and bicycle access to transportation facilities are not negatively impacted.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Maryland has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: The issuance of Executive Order 385 (“Planning for Smart Growth”) in 1996 led to the creation of a number of smart growth initiatives that targeted concentrated growth and the revitalization of urban centers. However, it wasn’t until 2000, when the state passed the Community Preservation Act, that smart growth planning was solidified in the law and a program was established to support communities’ preservation of open space. Massachusetts subsequently adopted Chapter 40R, the Smart Growth Zoning Law, which provides financial incentives for municipalities to increase density and build affordable housing in areas with good access to transit. The Commonwealth Capital program, initiated in 2005, applies several smart growth criteria to municipalities’ applications for state funding. 

VMT Targets: In 2009, the state implemented language from Chapter 90E, mandating the accommodation of biking and pedestrian traffic in future transportation construction plans. This was followed by the launch of Massachusetts Department of Transportation’s GreenDOT program aimed at reducing the state’s contribution of transportation sector greenhouse gas emissions.

Complete Streets: Massachusetts Chapter 90E provides for the accommodation of bicycle and pedestrian traffic in the planning, design, and construction, reconstruction or maintenance of any project undertaken.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Massachusetts has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals. The plan’s goals include balancing and diversifying the multi-modal freight system to prevent an over-reliance on truck shipping, reducing congestion and environmental impacts by moving goods shipments to rail and water networks, and enhancing economic development opportunities by improving the efficiency of freight movements. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: The Michigan Planning Enabling Act of 2008 requires all municipalities to create comprehensive master plans as a guide for future development. In creating these plans, each municipality must consult with adjacent local governments to avoid conflicts in zoning and planning and must also coordinate with all state and federal governments responsible for programs that affect the economic, social and physical aspects of the respective municipality.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2010, Michigan passed HB 135, creating a complete streets advisory council within the state Department of Transportation that was tasked with formulating a complete streets policy for the state by 2012. Municipalities must also address this complete streets policy before finalizing capital infrastructure projects.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Michigan has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Minnesota adopted a complete streets policy in 2013 and updated it in 2016.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Minnesota has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2010, the Mississippi DOT adopted complete streets legislation to incorporate bicyclists and pedestrians into all road planning, design, construction and maintenance activities. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Mississippi has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The Missouri General Assembly approved a concurrent resolution (HCR 23) in 2011 to support complete streets. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Missouri has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Nevada has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: New Hampshire's State Development Plan aims to maximize compact, sustainable developments across the state through the implementation of key smart growth principles in the project planning and execution stages.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan aims to implement statewide planning objectives that encourage development in recognized city, town and village centers and a balance of conservation in rural areas to enhance the quality of life for residents. The plan is a cross-institutional effort to promote smart growth across the state, estimated to save as much as $2.3 billion in capital costs in the process, if fully implemented.  Unfortunately, implementation of the state planning effort has languished in recent years. As of August 2009, a required update to the State Plan was long overdue, the State Planning Commission was suffering from a lack of appointments and staff levels at the Office of Smart Growth continued to shrink.

The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) continues to run the New Jersey Future in Transportation (FIT) program in an effort to provide affordable and sustainable transportation solutions that break the sprawl cycle and integrate land use and transportation planning. The NJDOT also runs the Transit Village program which encourages transit-oriented development, and the Mobility and Community Form project, which helps communities plan future transportation and land use by preparing a Mobility and Community Form (MCF) Element that combines the circulation and land use elements of their master plans. 

In January 2008, New Jersey passed the “Urban Transit Hub Tax Credit Act”, providing businesses that choose to locate in “urban transit hubs” – defined as the area in a one-half mile radius around rail stations -- with tax credits. This law was amended by the New Jersey Economic Stimulus Act of 2009, requiring businesses to invest at least $50,000,000 in a business or residential facility before it can earn tax credits that can be applied to corporate business taxes, insurance premiums tax or income tax.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The New Jersey DOT adopted a complete streets policy in 2009 to provide safe access and mobility to pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users of all ages and abilities through the planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of new and retrofit transportation facilities.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: New Jersey has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals. One interesting efficiency measure in the state’s freight plan is the goal to move road freight traffic away from peak travel hours to take advantage of off-peak period roadway capacity and subsequently reduce idling and congestion.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: New Mexico has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: The state of New York encourages each municipality to create comprehensive plans for local development according to established procedure. Efforts are also being made to encourage inter-municipal cooperation and cooperation between municipalities and state agricultural districts when planning for future development.

In addition, in August 2010 the Smart Growth Public Infrastructure Policy Act was signed into law and took effect a month later as an amendment to Environmental Conservation Law.  The Act is intended to minimize the unnecessary cost of sprawl development and requires  State infrastructure agencies and authorities ensure that public infrastructure projects ( including transportation, sewer and water treatment, water supply, education and housing  projects) are consistent with the relevant Smart Growth Criteria specified in the Act. In 2014 this Act was modified to add a resiliency criteria.

VMT Targets: In 2008, New York adopted a VMT reduction target of 10% in 10 years as a means of encouraging more energy-efficient transportation usage.

Complete Streets: In 2011, the state implemented a complete streets policy ensuring convenient access and mobility on the road network by all users of all ages.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Senate Bill 897 established the Sustainable Communities Taskforce to encourage the creation of sustainable communities with access to transportation alternatives

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2009, the state DOT adopted a complete streets policy. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: The state of North Dakota passed House Bill 1340 in December 2009 mandating metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) to develop, in cooperation with the state and public transit operators, transportation plans and programs for metropolitan areas. These plans must include transportation measures that promote inter-modal transportation development and efficient transportation systems while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption. Transportation plans must also comply with government-approved comprehensive growth plans.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: North Dakota has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Ohio has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No freight plan or goals in place.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration : Oregon has a long history of leadership on land use planning. Oregon has stringent regulations regarding the creation and use of comprehensive plans in land-use planning. Each municipality must develop a local comprehensive plan and all plans must be based on the state’s 19 planning goals, which include improving upon existing transportation facilities and providing effective transportation and mass transit facilities for high-density communities. The State Department of Land Use and Conservation regulates local governments, special districts and state agencies undertaking land-use changes.

The state passed HB 2186 in 2009 calling for all Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) to create a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Task Force that looks for alternative land use and transportation planning scenarios that would meet community growth needs but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions across the state. 

VMT Targets: The state finalized region-specific per capita GHG reductions ranging from 17 percent to 21 percent by 2035 from auto travel.

Complete Streets: ORS 366.514 requires the inclusion of facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists wherever a road, street or highway is built or rebuilt

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Oregon has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: A comprehensive complete streets policy was adopted by the state DOT that mandates that highway and bridge projects must evaluate the needs of pedestrians and bicycle users.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Pennsylvania has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use integration: In 1988, Rhode Island passed the Comprehensive Planning and Land Use Regulation Act, making comprehensive planning mandatory for municipalities. In 2000, an Impact Fee Act was passed to ensure that new growth did not financially burden existing tax payers and that adequate facilities were built to support new or rapidly growing development. The state also revised its State Land Use Plan in 2006, incorporating a number of recommendations and policies to discourage urban sprawl. Chapter 31-18-21 of state code directs the department of transportation to provide for the accommodation of bicycle and pedestrian traffic in the planning, design, construction and reconstruction of state highways and roads.

VMT Targest: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Chapter 16 and Chapter 31-18 of Title 24 outline the state's complete streets policy.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Rhode Island has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2003, South Carolina adopted complete streets legislation to accommodate bicycling and walking facilities DOT planning activities. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: South Carolina has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No policy in place or proposed.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: Tennesee's Multimodal Access Grant provides supports the transportation needs of transit users, pedestrians, and bicyclists through infrastructure projects that address existing gaps along state routes and access at transit hubs

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2010, Tennessee adopted a bicycle and pedestrian policy that mandates transportation planning agencies and developers to integrate provisions for bicycles and pedestrians into the new construction and the reconstruction of roads and highways.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Tennessee has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The Texas Department of Transportation has released guidelines requiring the inclusion of acccomodations for bikers and pedestrians in all road projects. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Texas has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals. One interesting aspect of this plan is the emphasis on project selection criteria in the planning process that support and prioritize funding of first and last mile connectors in locations with regional, statewide and national significance, including both urban and rural connectors.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Utah has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: The state of Vermont enacted Act 250 in 1970 as a means to implement a permitting system to limit urban sprawl and inefficient development. In 1988, the state passed a growth management act to provide local municipalities with the necessary resources and funds to plan adequately for the future. The growth management act also served to coordinate state, regional and local efforts to target sound development practices. All local development plans must abide by 16 rules outlined in the Municipal and County Government statutes.

VMT Targets: 30 VSA §218c requires the publication and adoption of a Comprehensive Energy Plan. The 2011 CEP sets a pair of VMT targets: 1) That per-capita VMT remain at or below 2011 levels, and 2) that overall VMT growth be limited to 1.5% (half the national average) or less. 

Complete Streets: Vermont statutes include complete streets legislation that orders any construction or reconstruction project to allocate space for pedestrian and bicycle friendly pathways unless those additions are deemed prohibitively expensive.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Vermont has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals. Vermont is one of the few states to include a comprehensive discussion of freight sector performance measures and offer a proposal for implementation.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: Virginia’s Planning, Subdivision of Land and Zoning Code (Title 15.2, Chapter 22) requires every locality in Virginia to undertake a comprehensive plan that coordinates land-use planning and future actions in order to effectively implement zoning requirements. Local governments are in charge of controlling growth while the state ties use of discretionary funds to the implementation of sustainable growth practices.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The state has had a complete streets policy in place since 2004. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Virginia has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land use Integration: Washington State has long been a leader with respect to smart growth initiatives. In 1990, the state passed the Growth Management Act (GMA) aimed at targeting the uncoordinated and unplanned sprawl that threatens the environment and quality of life in Washington. The GMA establishes state goals, compliance deadlines and advice on the preparation of local comprehensive plans without overriding the authority of local and regional governmental institutions. As of February 2000, 92% of local communities mandated to plan fully for future growth had adopted comprehensive growth plans.

VMT Targets: Washington has also established an ambitious state VMT reduction target that aims to reduce VMT per capita by 18% in 2020, 30% in 2025 and 50% by 2050 relative to 1990 levels. 

Complete Streets: Chapter 257, written into law in 2011 establishes a complete streets grant program and incorporates complete streets principles into construction and retrofit projects. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Washington has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: On April 10, 2013, West Virginia Legislature passed Senate Bill No. 158, the Complete Streets Act. This policy promotes the consideration of all forms of transportation when designing roads and highways in West Virginia.  

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No finalized freight plan or goals in place. 

Last Updated: July 2017

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Wisconsin enacted clean streets legislation in 2009, mandating that all new highway construction include walkways and bikeways. Funding for such additions can be taken from appropriated state and federal transportation dollars. 

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: No finalized freight plan or goals in place. 

Last Updated: July 2107

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: No policy in place or proposed.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Wyoming has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Updated: July 2017