State and Local Policy Database

Utilities Summary

Policies and programs that address customer end uses of energy are critical for achieving greater energy efficiency within the electric and natural gas utility sectors. States use ratepayer funds to administer programs that advance the deployment of energy efficiency in numerous sectors, including residential and commercial buildings, industry, and public institutions. States use different models to administer ratepayer funds, allowing utilities to run programs, utilizing a third-party, or blending these models.

Alabama has not historically administered utility-sector energy efficiency programs, and currently offers only very limited energy efficiency options. Alabama’s regulators have not encouraged or required the state’s sole investor owned utility (IOU), Alabama Power, to pursue energy efficiency and as a result, the utility has yet to implement a comprehensive set of programs. TVA and its distribution utilities in northern Alabama, which are not subject to state regulation, are moving forward with increases in their energy efficiency programs. Cooperative utilities associated with the PowerSouth Energy Cooperative administer minimal efficiency programs.  Overall, Alabama Power and the cooperative utilities approach energy efficiency very skeptically. The utilities invest far more on load management programs than energy efficiency programs. 

Electric utility service in Alabama is provided by one jurisdictional company (Alabama Power Company) and a number of non-jurisdictional entities including the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), distribution cooperatives, and municipal systems.  Alabama’s regulator, the Alabama Public Service Commission (APSC), encourages Alabama Power to pursue energy efficiency programs, but a cost-effectiveness requirement  results in Alabama Power having fewer offerings than are seen in many other states. Alabama Power nonetheless offered more than 20 programs directed to energy efficiency during 2016.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: June 2017

Historically, there have been very few utility-sector energy efficiency programs in Alaska.  Most program activity is through the state government. Since 2008, the Alaska State Legislature has appropriated a total of $461.5 million to energy efficiency programs, which are covered on Alaska's Financial Incentives page.

In 2010, House Bill 306 established Alaska's state energy policy, which included an aggressive renewable electricity goal, as well as a goal to reduce per capita electricity use in the state by 15% by 2020. This goal has not yet been translated into specific requirements for utilities to achieve specific savings levels, and therefore is not yet considered an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS).

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: September 2016

Arizona’s utilities administer a growing portfolio of energy efficiency programs. In 2010, the Arizona Corporation Commission (ACC) ordered that all investor-owned utilities must achieve 1.25% annual electricity savings starting in 2011, ramping up to 2% beginning in 2013. This energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) will ultimately result in 22% cumulative savings by 2020 (including a 2% credit for peak reductions from demand response). Regulated rural electric cooperatives are required to meet 75% of this standard. Arizona’s two largest investor-owned electric utilities, the Arizona Public Service Company and the Tucson Electric Power Company, operate a variety of demand-side management (DSM) programs applicable to a range of customers. Programs are administered by each utility and funding varies by utility. Program plans are submitted by utilities to the ACC and approval is required by the ACC before implementation. Arizona’s second largest electric utility, the Salt River Project (SRP), is a public utility and also offers a comprehensive range of efficiency programs. The utility’s board approves SRP’s funding for demand-side management.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: September 2016

Utility-sector energy efficiency initiatives in Arkansas have increased significantly since 2007, when the Arkansas Public Service Commission (APSC) approved Rules for Conservation and Energy Efficiency Programs requiring electric and gas utilities to propose and administer energy efficiency programs. In 2010, the APSC further established the importance of energy efficiency as a resource by adopting an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) for both electricity and natural gas, guidelines for efficiency program cost recovery and a shareholder performance incentive, and new guidelines for utility resource planning, which include provisions for demand-side resources. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

For further reading, in March 2011, as part of the State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the report Advancing Energy Efficiency in Arkansas: Opportunities for a Clean Energy Economy.

Last updated: June 2017

California is a long-time leading state for its utility-sector customer energy efficiency programs, which date back to the 1970s and have grown and evolved substantially over three decades. Investor-owned utilities administer energy efficiency programs with oversight by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), which establishes key policies and guidelines, sets program goals, and approves spending levels.  California's publicly owned utilities (POUs) also administer customer programs. All of the investor-owned electric and gas utilities in California have decoupling, which has been in place for many years in California and is an integral part of California's "big, bold" energy efficiency initiative. Utilities may also earn performance incentives for energy efficiency efforts. 

In October 2015, California enacted SB 350, calling on state agencies and utilities to work together to double cumulative efficiency savings by 2030.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: June 2017

Colorado’s utilities administer a growing portfolio of energy efficiency programs with oversight by the Public Utilities Commission (PUC). The state enacted legislation in 2007 requiring the PUC to establish energy savings goals for gas and electric utilities (thereby creating an EERS) and to give investor-owned utilities a financial incentive for implementing cost-effective efficiency programs. Both Xcel Energy, which is the largest investor-owned utility (IOU) in the state and operates as the Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), and Black Hills Energy, the other IOU, have expanded their demand-side management (DSM) programs in recent years. The utilities file DSM plans annually, and are working toward the most recent EERS targets which ramp up to 1.35% in 2015 and reach 1.68% in 2020. Colorado implemented natural gas programs in 2008. There is no decoupling for electric or gas utilities, The PUC has also created incentives to reward utilities that create efficiency programs for electricity and natural gas and that meet or exceed energy savings goals.  In 2013, the Colorado PUC began a process to revisit certain aspects of the goals and incentive mechanisms for PSCo in Docket 13A-0686EG.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: September 2016

Connecticut's electric distribution companies (Connecticut Light & Power and United Illuminating Company), natural gas investor-owned utilities (Connecticut Natural Gas Corporation, Southern Connecticut Gas Company, and Yankee Gas Services Company), and municipal electric companies provide portfolios of energy efficiency programs to their customers. The Energy Efficiency Board (EEB), comprised of 15 appointed members representing state agencies and utilities, is responsible for approving the natural gas and electric distribution companies’ plans. Electric and natural gas programs are both required by legislation. The EEB administers the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund (CEEF), which is primarily supported by monthly charges on customers' bills.  The utilities administer the energy efficiency programs, and the utilities and contractors they hire implement them.

In 2007, the Connecticut legislature enacted Public Act 07-242, An Act Concerning Electricity and Energy Efficiency, which places new requirements for energy efficiency and establishes new regulatory mechanisms, such as electric and natural gas decoupling. The Act requires the electric distribution utilities to procure all cost-effective energy efficiency as their first-priority resource.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: June 2017

Delaware has made advances toward strengthening its energy efficiency programs, establishing the nonprofit Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) to operate programs to deliver comprehensive end-user efficiency and customer-sited renewable energy services. SEU operates as “Energize Delaware.” Since 2006, Delaware law has required electricity providers to engage in integrated resource planning (IRP).  In 2009, Delaware approved an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) that set goals for consumption and peak demand for electricity and natural gas utilities. The goals are 15% electricity consumption and peak demand savings and 10% natural gas consumption savings by 2015. However, rules outlining how these goals are to be met are still pending.

In 2014, the state legislature passed SB 150 with an amendment calling for expansion of cost-effective electric and natural gas utility programs, and allowing utilities to deliver these programs and recover costs through rates. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2017

The District of Columbia has had customer energy efficiency programs funded by a systems benefits charge and administered by the District of Columbia Energy Office since a 2005 decision by the DC Public Service Commission. This fund, the Reliable Energy Trust Fund, was created as a result of the District's 1999 Retail Electric Competition and Consumer Protection Act. The fund has supported a variety of programs and services since it was established in 2005. Initial funding in 2006 was about $8 million.

In 2008, the District of Columbia enacted the Clean and Affordable Energy Act, which eliminated the Reliable Energy Trust Fund and replaced it with the Sustainable Energy Trust Fund. This fund is administered by DC's third-party "Sustainable Energy Utility" (DCSEU). 

Responsibility for the implementation of energy efficiency programs was transferred from PEPCO to DCSEU in 2011.  The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables. 

Last updated: June 2017

Florida utilities with sales of 2,000 GWh or more are subject to the Florida Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act (FEECA). This act requires each utility to implement cost-effective energy efficiency programs and to conduct energy audits. It also includes improving the efficiency of generation, transmission and distribution systems.

FEECA was amended in 2008 and now requires the state to conduct energy efficiency potential studies. ITRON completed a study in 2008 and reported a technical potential savings of ~34%. This includes both photovoltaic solar technology and energy efficiency. In December 2009, the The Florida Public Service Commission (FPSC) set energy efficiency goals based on this study. Some of these goals have since been adjusted.

The FPSC reviews and approves utilities’ energy efficiency plans. According to FEECA, the FPSC may allow investor-owned utilities to earn an additional return on equity of up to 50 basis points for saving 20 percent or more of their annual load-growth via energy efficiency . The FPSC may also assess penalties if utilities do not meet the goals.

Since 1980, when FEECA was approved, utility programs have deferred the need for eleven 500 MW power plants. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Florida electric utilities saved 364,599 MWh in 2009.  The Consortium for Energy Efficiency reports 2010 electric program budgets totaling $123.2 million and natural gas budgets of $6.5 million. The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found from the tables on the left.

Natural gas programs are available for residential and commercial customers in Florida and are required by both orders and legislation. These programs are approved by the FPSC and are implemented by the utilities.

Florida has considered implementing decoupling, which reduces the financial disincentive for utilities to support energy efficiency by separating utilities’ profits from their levels of sales. In 2008, the FPSC decided that existing annual cost recovery clauses made it unnecessary to introduce decoupling. In December 2009, the Florida Public Utility Commission set goals for its electric utilities at 3.5% energy savings over 10 years. This rule was rolled back in July 2011. In 2014, the Commission voted to establish goals for the FEECA utilities based on the RIM cost-effectiveness analysis .

In 2007, ACEEE researched Florida’s energy efficiency potential. ACEEE reported that energy efficiency improvements could offset the majority of Florida’s predicted load growth over the next 15 years, leading to impressive savings for Florida residents and businesses. That report can be found here. In 2014, Florida utilities proposed to reduce efficiency efforts from 2010 levels by at least 80%. The Florida Public Service Commission approved this proposal.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: June 2017

Georgia’s Integrated Resource Planning law, O.C.G.A. § 46-3A-2, approved in the early 1990s, requires the state’s regulated electric utilities to file integrated resource plans (IRPs) with the Georgia Public Service Commission (GPSC) every three years. The IRPs must take into account any present and projected reductions in the demand for energy that may result from measures to improve energy efficiency in the industrial, commercial, residential, and energy-producing sectors of the state. To encourage utilities to use demand-side resources, Georgia statute O.C.G.A. § 46-3A-9 allows utilities to recover costs and an additional sum for commission-approved demand-side management programs. Natural gas utilities are not required to file IRPs or offer energy efficiency programs.

Georgia Power, cooperative utilities, and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) offer energy efficiency programs. The GPSC regulates Georgia Power, but not the other electric utilities. To date levels of spending and associated energy efficiency program activity have been relatively low.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: June 2017

Hawaii has increased their utility-sector energy efficiency program offerings in recent years. The Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO), the largest investor-owned utility in the state, has offered energy efficiency programs since the mid-1990s. In July 2009, Hawaii consolidated the energy efficiency programs of most of its electric utilities into a single program operated by a third-party contractor, Leidos. Hawaii has two major electric utility companies—HECO and the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC).  HECO’s customers support the energy efficiency programs through a public benefits charge and KIUC operates its customer energy efficiency programs independently. Hawaii uses very little natural gas, and does not have any natural gas energy efficiency programs.

Hawaii is collaborating with the United States Department of Energy to achieve the goal of supplying 70% of the state’s energy needs through renewable energy and energy efficiency programs by 2030. Hawaii’s public utilities commission has also adopted an energy efficiency portfolio standard (Docket No. 2010-0037) with a goal of achieving 4,300 GWh of energy savings by 2030.

Hawaii has decoupling in place and offers energy efficiency shareholder incentives for electric utilities.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2015

Idaho's investor-owned utilities administer energy efficiency programs with oversight from the Idaho Public Utilities Commission (PUC). Energy efficiency programs are supported and supplemented by regional organizations, including the Bonneville Power Administration, the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance and the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. Idaho has not restructured its electric utility industry and there is no legislation requiring funding for energy efficiency programs.

In 2001, the PUC ordered Idaho Power to file a comprehensive DSM plan and to implement programs. In 2002, the PUC created an energy efficiency rider to fund these programs. In 2006, the PUC required Pacificorp (via operating companies in Idaho, Utah Power and Light and Rocky Mountain Power) to file and implement a comprehensive DSM plan. The state uses an integrated resource planning process.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

The Illinois General Assembly passed a law in 2007 that requires the state’s electric utilities and state energy office to provide customer energy efficiency programs and to meet energy savings goals. The legislation set an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) that began at 0.2% of electricity sales per year in 2008 and increases in steps up to 2.0% of sales per year by 2015.

In late 2016 Illinois passed the Future Energy Jobs Bill (SB 2814), raising overall utility energy efficiency targets to require ComEd and Ameren to achieve cumulative 21.5% and 16% reductions in energy use, respectively, by 2030.

Illinois established a natural gas EERS in 2009 with a goal of providing 8.6% cumulative savings by 2020. The state is pilot-testing a natural gas decoupling program. Illinois does not provide shareholder incentives tied to energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

From 2007 to 2014 Indiana had been expanding customer energy efficiency programs. Both electric and natural gas utilities administered programs for their customers as the result of regulatory orders and other decisions by the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission. Through 2013, the electric utilities offered a portfolio of “core programs,” organized and coordinated statewide as “Energizing Indiana,” as a statewide, common platform. However, in 2014 the state legislature voted to disband Energizing Indiana programs. Prior to the rollback of the state's energy efficiency resource standard (EERS), growth of these programs had been steady, although overall spending on programs was still modest in comparison to leading Midwestern states.

SEA 412 (Senate Enrolled Act 412), signed into law by the Governor in 2015, requires utilities to seek approval of new energy efficiency plans at least once every three years and provides that EM&V procedures be required to be included in an electricity supplier's energy efficiency plan.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables on the left.

Last updated: June 2017

Iowa's utilities administer energy efficiency programs under a regulated structure with oversight by the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) and significant input from the Office of Consumer Advocate. Iowa Code 476.6.16 mandates that electric and natural gas utilities that are required to be rate-regulated (investor-owned utilities or IOUs) must offer cost-effective energy efficiency programs. Energy efficiency plans filed by municipal utilities and electric cooperatives include voluntary goals. The utilities recover program costs of the plans approved by the IUB through tariff riders on customer bills.

Iowa's utilities have long records of funding and providing comprehensive portfolios of energy efficiency programs to all major customer categories — residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural. Funding levels have been strong throughout the years, with a notable decrease in the late 1990s as the state considered restructuring proposals. Since the early 2000s, the state has renewed and increased its commitment to energy efficiency programs. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2017

While there are no requirements for utilities to offer customer energy efficiency programs, the Kansas Corporation Commission encourages and collaborates with individual utilities on a case-by-case basis to provide customer programs. Most of the state’s utilities do offer some customer energy efficiency programs, although budgets and services available through such programs are not as expansive and comprehensive as other states. The programs primarily offer financing or rebates for energy-efficiency improvements.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Kentucky has taken an increased interest in utility-sector energy efficiency over the past several years, although statewide investments in and savings from utility energy efficiency programs are still below the national average. Kentucky's 2007 Energy Act recommended that utilities examine specific issues regarding energy efficiency and related programs, and in 2008, Kentucky released its first statewide energy plan, proposing to use efficiency measures to offset at least 18% of the state’s projected energy demand in 2025.  Since then, both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities have expanded their energy efficiency programs. For years, these programs were optional, but legislation in 2010 – HB 240, which reenacts a bill that passed in 2008 – allows the KPSC to create requirements for demand-side management programs.

At least one investor-owned utility, Duke Energy, has offered demand-side management (DSM) programs in Kentucky since 1996. Kentucky's regulated utilities administer and implement DSM programs with oversight from the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC), and rural electric cooperatives also offer some energy efficiency programs. Natural gas programs are not required by legislation, but are available for all sectors other than industrial customers. These programs are administered by utilities and implemented by third-party contractors.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: August 2015

Louisiana’s investor-owned electric utilities began offering energy efficiency programs for electricity customers in 2014. Entergy New Orleans, which is regulated by the City of New Orleans, has been offering a portfolio of energy efficiency programs called Energy Smart since 2011. The Louisiana Public Service Commission (LPSC), which regulates all other investor-owned utilities (IOUs), approved final energy efficiency rules in 2013, which create a framework for voluntary quick-start energy efficiency programs (Docket R-31106). In early 2014, the electric utilities filed plans for quick-start energy efficiency programs, and they began rolling out the programs in November 2014. Gas utilities chose not to file quick-start programs. Next, the LPSC will work on the more comprehensive Phase Two energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables (below).

For more information see the ACEEE May 2013 report Louisiana’s 2030 Energy Efficiency Roadmap: Saving Energy, Lowering Bills, and Creating Jobs.

In 2010, the independent Efficiency Maine, managed by a stakeholder board,  assumed responsibility for administering energy efficiency and alternative energy programs across all utility territories in Maine.  The Legislature directed the Maine Public Utilities Commission (MPUC) to provide oversight of Efficiency Maine’s administration as well as approve its three-year, strategic plans and budgets.  Legislation enacted in 2013 requires the utilities to fund Efficiency Maine’s budgets at a level sufficient to procure all electric and natural gas efficiency that is cost-effective, reliable and achievable.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last Updated: June 2016

Although Maryland’s utilities ran energy efficiency and demand response programs in the 1980s and early 1990s, most of these efforts were discontinued when the state removed regulations during utility restructuring in the late 1990s. This changed when the legislature enacted the EmPower Maryland Energy Efficiency Act of 2008, creating an EERS that sets a statewide goal of reducing per capita electricity use by 15% by 2015 with targeted reductions of 5% by 2011 (Order 82344).  Since then, electric utilities have significantly expanded their energy efficiency program portfolios. More recent goals set by the PSC require utilities to ramp up savings by 0.2% per year to reach 2% incremental savings (Order No. 87082). In 2017, the legislature passed SB 184 which codified the 2% energy savings goal into law through 2023..

Utilities must file their energy efficiency program plans with the Public Service Commission, which then must approve the plans. The PSC has allowed some utilities to decouple their profits from their sales. Utilities do not have an option to earn shareholder performance incentives, although cost recovery amortized over multiple years may include a return. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

In February 2008, as part of the State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the report Energy Efficiency: The First Fuel for a Clean Energy Future; Resources for Meeting Maryland's Electricity Needs. In 2017, ACEEE published a report on the benefits of Maryland's Energy Efficiency programs.

Last Updated: July 2017

Massachusetts is a leading state with a long, successful record of implementing energy efficiency programs for all customer sectors. The state created an aggressive funding mechanism and required electric utilities to provide energy efficiency programs during its restructuring of the industry in 1997. The natural gas utilities in the state have offered energy efficiency programs to customers since the late 1980s.

In 2008, the governor signed Chapter 169 of the Acts of 2008, An Act Relative to Green Communities. The new law altered the approval process and timeline for electric and natural gas utility energy efficiency plans and required the utilities to file the plans every three years. The law required the state’s regulatory authority, the Department of Public Utilities, to ensure that energy efficiency programs “are delivered in a cost-effective manner capturing all available efficiency opportunities, minimizing administrative costs to the fullest extent practicable, and utilizing competitive procurement processes to the fullest extent practicable.” In addition, the law directed the DPU to appoint and convene an Energy Efficiency Advisory Council (EEAC), whose members play a key role in designing, approving, and monitoring the energy efficiency programs of Massachusetts' investor-owned utilities. The EEAC’s primary mandate is achieving the goals outlined in the Green Communities Act and developing long-term vision, including recommendations concerning studies and research to achieve the goals of acquiring all cost-effective efficiency that is less than the cost of generation, and maximizing economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through increased energy efficiency.

Massachusetts' approach has resulted in one of the most ambitious fully-funded state savings targets, incremental electric savings targets ramping up from 2.5% to 2.6% from 2013-2015. The state’s three year plan also includes gas savings of about 1.1% of retail sales each year. Utility companies in the state manage and implement efficiency programs. The low-income residential demand-side management and education programs are implemented through the state’s low-income weatherization and fuel assistance program.

Massachusetts has decoupling in place for all of its gas and electric utilities. Utility companies can earn a shareholder incentive of approximately 5% of energy efficiency program costs for meeting energy saving, benefit-cost, and market transformation goals.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last Updated: August 2015

Michigan had a history of fairly aggressive energy efficiency programs until 1995, when demand-side management and integrated resource planning were discontinued during the move toward electric restructuring.  Michigan had essentially no utility-sector energy efficiency programs from 1996 until 2008.

Public Act 295 of 2008 (enrolled SB 213) brought energy efficiency programs back to Michigan in the form of an EERS that requires all electric providers (other than alternative electric suppliers) and all rate-regulated natural gas utilities to file energy optimization (efficiency) programs with the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC or Commission). Public Act 295 offers multiple options for providers of energy efficiency program administration including administration by the provider, joint administration with other providers, administration by a state agency, or administration by a competitively-selected nonprofit organization.

PA 341 and PA 342, passed in December 2016, extend the current 1% electric and 0.75% natural gas efficiency targets through 2021. The legislation also removes a cap on spending and allows for higher financial performance incentives for exceeding mandated 1% targets.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2017

Minnesota has a long record of customer energy efficiency programs offered by both investor-owned and publicly owned utilities. Minnesota has achieved significant savings from these programs, which have been in place in various forms for well over two decades. These programs and efforts have remained steadfast in Minnesota without any of the interruption or upheavals that occurred in other states that restructured their electric utility industries.

In 2007, the Minnesota Legislature passed the Next Generation Energy Act of 2007 (Minnesota Statutes 2008 § 216B.241). Among its provisions, the Act sets energy-saving goals for utilities of 1.5% of retail sales each year, thereby establishing an EERS. This act also directed the Public Utilities Commission to allow one or more rate-regulated utilities to participate in a pilot program (of up to 3 years) to assess the merits of a rate-decoupling strategy. The Commission continues to examine decoupling and has established criteria and standards to be used when considering proposals from utilities. Minnesota allows utilities to earn performance incentives for energy efficiency programs.  Minnesota’s regulated utilities are required to file integrated resource plans with the Public Utilities Commission. The plans identify the potential resources the utilities intend to use to meet consumer needs in future years, including significant energy efficiency and conservation savings.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

The Mississippi Public Service Commission (MPSC) issued energy efficiency rules in July 2013 (Docket No. 2010-AD-2) that lays out a framework requiring investor-owned utilities to implement “Quick Start” energy efficiency program programs. The rules apply to regulated electric and natural gas service providers, defining elements of both “Quick Start” and teeing up issues and ideas for phase two “Comprehensive” portfolios. The rule also lays out criteria for program cost –benefit tests, cost recovery, and evaluation, monitoring, and verification (EM&V).

Each major utility serving customers in Mississippi has filed a Quick Start Energy Efficiency Plan to be implemented between mid 2014 and 2016.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2017

Missouri began a major transformation in the scope and role of utility-sector energy efficiency programs in 2009 when the state enacted SB 376, the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act (MEEIA). Among its many provisions, it requires Missouri’s investor-owned electric utilities to capture all cost-effective energy efficiency opportunities. After some delays in the implementation of MEEIA, one of the state’s largest utilities launched a full suite of customer programs beginning in 2012 and the state’s other largest utility filed a 3-year program plan as required by MEEIA in 2013. In early 2016, the Commission approved MEEIA Cycle 2 DSM programs and DSIMs for Ameren Missouri, KCP&L, and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company.

Prior to the developments of the past few years, Missouri has historically had limited energy efficiency programs for utility customers. While fundamental rules have been in place since the early 1990s for integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM), such rules had not yielded significant levels of utility spending on DSM programs. MEEIA and related commission orders have led to a rapid and large increase in utility energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2017

Customer energy efficiency programs in Montana are provided by utilities or in selected cases by a state agency. NorthWestern Energy, the state's largest utility and provider of electricity to 90% of the state population. Programs receive funding from a universal system benefits charge, established in 1999, paid by all customers of competitive electricity providers and cooperative utilities (see Mont. Admin. R. 42.29.101 et seq.). The Montana Public Service Commission oversees the programs. The Montana Department of Revenue ensures all of the money is spent on qualifying programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Nebraska's 162 electric utilities are all publicly-owned. There is utility-sector energy efficiency activity statewide. Omaha Public Power District, Nebraska Public Power District, and Lincoln Electric System account for the majority of utility program spending and efforts; other energy efficiency activities are at 84 other utilities. The Nebraska Energy Office administers a loan program for energy efficiency improvements using federal and trust funds.  

There are 16 publicly-owned and four investor-owned natural gas utilities in Nebraska. Nebraska’s natural gas utilities do not offer energy efficiency programs at this time.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2017

Nevada's two investor-owned electric utilities, Nevada Power Company and Sierra Pacific Power, administer customer energy efficiency programs that are funded by rate adjustments noted on customer bills.  Both utilities are subsidiaries of NV Energy; since 2008, they have done business under the NV Energy brand. Nevada's renewable energy portfolio standard allows energy efficiency to be used in partial fulfillment of its portfolio requirements. Nevada utilities can recover lost revenues that result from successfully conducting energy efficiency programs.

The levels of funding and program services have grown rapidly since Nevada reestablished requirements for energy efficiency programs provided by the state's investor-owned electric utilities, as well as integrated resource planning. These utilities aggressively pursued energy efficiency and grew their portfolio until they achieved saving of 1.5% of sales in 2009. Since then their savings have dropped to half that amount. Nevada’s publicly-owned utilities also provide some energy efficiency programs to their customers.

In June 2017, SB 150 was signed into law directing the PUCN to establish annual energy savings goals for NV Energy and to establish performance-based incentives which an electric utility can recover if it exceeds those goals. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

 

 

New Hampshire's regulated electric distribution utilities jointly develop and offer their customers energy efficiency programs under a statewide umbrella program, NHSaves. These programs are funded via a system benefits charge included in customer rates. Each year, the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission reviews and approves program plans and budgets submitted by the utilities. Utilities can earn performance incentives based on successful implementation of their programs and meeting performance goals. Recently additional funding for New Hampshire’s “core” customer energy efficiency programs is provided via the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). The legislation governing RGGI requires that the first dollar from the sale of greenhouse gas allowances is to go to fund electric energy efficiency programs.

In addition to funding via a System Benefits Charge (SBC) and Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), electric energy efficiency programs are also funded via ISO-NE Forward Capacity Revenues (FCM).  In 2014, ISO-NE FCM revenues were approximately $2.6 million; and, in 2015, ISO-NE FCM revenues were approximately $2.4 million.

Natural gas efficiency programs are not part of NHSaves. New Hampshire natural gas utilities administer energy efficiency programs that are approved by the New Hampshire PUC and funded via the Local Distribution Adjustment Clause (LDAC).

In August 2016, the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission approved a settlement agreement establishing a statewide EERS targeting overall cumulative savings of 3.1% of electric sales and 2.25% of gas sales by 2020.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last Updated: July 2017

Since 2003, the Office of Clean Energy within the Board of Public Utilities has administered the New Jersey Clean Energy Program, which has offered statewide customer energy efficiency programs. Prior to this, the regulated energy utilities in New Jersey had been responsible for administering electric and natural gas efficiency programs. 

New Jersey electric programs have been successful in generating significant savings. However, portions of the state’s societal benefit charge (SBC) have been re-allocated to pay state energy bills in recent years, reducing potential energy efficiency programming.

Natural gas programs are also available to customers within the state.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

New Mexico has three investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs), three natural gas utilities, and seventeen customer-owned rural electric distribution cooperatives.  The 2005 Efficient Use of Energy Act requires the electric IOUs and gas utilities to acquire cost-effective and achievable energy efficiency (EE) and load management resources available in their territories (NMSA 1978, §62-17-5(G)).  Electric IOUs must spend 3% of customer bills, while the gas utilities shall not spend more than 3% of total annual revenues.  Currently, the three electric IOUs and the largest gas utility, New Mexico Gas, choose to recover program costs and a proposed profit incentive through a tariff rider with an annual reconciliation mechanism.  These four utilities offer a variety of energy efficiency programs, including programs targeted at low-income customers and multi-family housing. 

Electric IOUs have a statutory goal of saving eight percent of 2005 retails sales through their EE programs by calendar year 2020.  The three electric IOUs, Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), Southwestern Public Service Company (SPS), and El Paso Electric (EPE), are all on target to meet this savings goal.  Furthermore,  "New Mexico should participate in regional efforts to reduce energy consumption by twenty percent by 2020 through programs to reduce energy consumption." (NMSA 1978, §62-17-2(H)). 

The rural electric distribution cooperatives are only required to examine the potential for offering cost-effective programs to reduce energy consumption or peak electricity demand (NMSA 1978, §62-17-11(A)).  Each cooperative's governing body will approve any slate of programs.  A percentage of the cooperatives  offers energy efficiency programs as of 2016.

Last Updated: July 2017

New York is a leading state on utility-sector energy efficiency programs. New York’s energy efficiency programs are the result of New York Public Service Commission (PSC) cases dating back to 1996. Customers pay a non-bypassable system benefits charge (SBC) on their utility bills, and the SBC is applied to all customer bills whether they receive service from a local utility or from a competitive supplier. The charge supports a comprehensive set of energy efficiency programs for residential, multifamily, low-income, and commercial/industrial customers, as well as research and development efforts in both the Commission’s Technology & Market Development (T&MD) and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) programs. In addition to the programs authorized by the Commission, two public power authorities not under the Commission’s jurisdiction, the New York Power Authority and the Long Island Power Authority, also offer energy efficiency programs to their customers.

New York has an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard with three-year targets for energy savings with a goal of reducing the state’s energy consumption by 15% by 2015. Targets beyond 2015 will be set as part of the state's ongoing Reforming the Energy Vision (REV) process. NYSERDA's Clean Energy Fund (CEF) Framework outlines a minimum 10-year energy efficiency goal of 10.6 million MWh measured in cumulative first year savings (approximately 0.7% incremental annual savings). Some degree of overlap of program savings is anticipated between utility targets and NYSERDA CEF goals.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

North Carolina utilities have expanded energy efficiency programs in recent years. However, their levels of investment and performance still remain below the national average. Utility efficiency programs are likely to continue expanding given the recent efforts by utilities and stakeholders.  In 2011, the newly-merged Duke Energy Progress (formed by two operating companies, Duke Energy Carolinas and Progress Energy Carolinas) reached a South Carolina PSC-approved settlement agreement with clean energy groups that, among other things, sets an annual energy efficiency savings target of 1% of retail sales starting in 2015, and a 7% cumulative target from 2014 to 2018.  Achievement of the target will require successful development, regulatory approval and implementation of energy efficiency programs. North Carolina also allows energy efficiency to count toward its statewide renewable and efficiency standard. On February 29, 2008, the North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) issued final rules implementing legislation passed in August 2007 that created North Carolina’s renewable energy and energy efficiency portfolio standard (REPS). The energy efficiency portion of the REPS energy savings targets increased to 0.75% of prior-year sales in 2012, rising to 5% of prior-year sales in 2021.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

For further reading, in March 2010, as part of the State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the report North Carolina's Energy Future: Electricity, Water, and Transportation Efficiency.

Last Updated: July 2017

While the PSC does not require utilities to implement energy efficiency programs, regulated utilities are required to meet their power needs through least-cost planning, which includes the consideration of Demand Side Management (DSM) programs. North Dakota’s utilities run a limited set of programs in order to meet resource needs, however efficiency program budgets and the associated energy savings have been below the national average.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last Updated: July 2017

Ohio’s investor-owned utilities administer energy efficiency programs under a regulated structure with oversight by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO). In 2008, the state passed a law that established an EERS with energy savings goals for electric utilities and allows for cost recovery and decoupling. Rules for implementing the law were published by the PUCO in July 2009. The rules require utilities to propose energy efficiency plans and file annual status reports with the commission. However, these rules were pulled back by the state legislature in 2014. Despite this, most utilities in the state will likely still offer some level of efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Oklahoma utilities offer a growing portfolio of energy efficiency programs, however their levels of investment and performance remain below the national average. The Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) established rules for electric and natural gas efficiency programs following a series of stakeholder collaborative meetings in 2008, and utilities subsequently filed three-year program plans.  In 2012, AEP Public Service Oklahoma (PSO) received approval for another three-year (2013-2015) electric energy efficiency program cycle, and Oklahoma Gas & Electric (OGE) similarly received approval for their programs in early 2013.  Both utilities will be working with significantly larger budgets for the next few years, and savings as a percentage of sales are expected to double. The state’s major gas utilities, Oklahoma Natural Gas and CenterPoint, have also started administer energy efficiency programs since the rulemaking. The state’s IOUs may recover lost revenues and earn an incentive for implementing successful energy efficiency programs. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Oregon is a leading state in energy efficiency, with programs dating back to the 1980s. Oregon energy utilities were first required to offer residential weatherization assistance to their customers by the 1981 Residential Energy Conservation Act. In 1989, the Oregon Public Utility Commission’s (OPUC’s) Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) Order No. 89-507 required the utilities to consider energy efficiency as a resource when developing plans.  

Oregon's 1999 restructuring law, SB 1149, established a public purpose charge to support electric energy efficiency, renewable energy, and low-income programs. The public purpose charge is equal to 3% of the total revenues collected by the utilities and provides about $60 million per year for the electric programs. 

The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), a nonprofit organization established by the Oregon Public Utility Commission (OPUC) in 2002, administers most of the statewide energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. Portland General Electric implements revenue per customer. In its first ever long-range strategic plan, the Energy Trust of Oregon laid out energy savings goals between 2010 and 2014 of 256 average megawatts (2,242.6 GWh) of electricity and 22.5 million annual therms of natural gas. In its second long-range strategic plan, Energy Trust laid out energy savings goals for the years 2015 through 2019 of 240 average megawatts (2,102 GWh) and 24 million annual therms of natural gas. These goals include savings from market transformation programs. 

NW Natural and Cascade Natural Gas adopted public purpose funding for natural gas energy efficiency programs and decoupling mechanisms in Order Nos. 02-634 and 06-191, respectively. Avista Utilities’ natural gas programs are funded through deferred accounts. Average expenditures for the natural gas programs are $10-$12 million per year. The ETO administers the majority of the statewide natural gas energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last Updated: July 2017

Pennsylvania utilities have significantly expanded energy efficiency program offerings in recent years since the enactment of the state’s EERS in 2008 (Act 129), with oversight by the Public Utilities Commission (PUC).   Pennsylvania Act 129 required each of the seven major electric distribution companies (EDCs) to procure cost-effective energy efficiency and to develop energy efficiency and conservation plans to reduce electricity consumption by a minimum 1% by 2011, increasing to a total of 3% by 2013, and to reduce peak demand by 4.5% by 2013.  In August 2012, the Pennsylvania PUC issued an implementation order for Phase II of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EE&C) Program, establishing electricity savings targets for each EDC over the 3-year period from FY2014-2016. The targets amount to an average of 2.3% cumulative savings over the 3-year period; no incremental annual targets were established. Phase III targets set 5-year cumulative targets of 5,710,487 MWh, equivalent to about 0.77% incremental savings per year through 2020.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

For further reading, in May 2009, as part of the State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the report Potential for Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Onsite Solar Energy in Pennsylvania.

Rhode Island has consistently achieved high levels of energy savings through its energy efficiency programs, and has some of the most aggressive energy savings targets in the country. One investor-owned utility, Narragansett Electric (a National Grid Company), administers and operates a portfolio of energy efficiency programs for its customers, which account for 99% of statewide sales of electricity. A public utility, Pascoag Utility District, also operates programs.  The Rhode Island legislature unanimously passed sweeping legislation in 2006, which, among other things, established the state's energy efficiency resource standard (EERS).  The Comprehensive Energy Conservation, Efficiency and Affordability Act of 2006 requires utilities to acquire all cost-effective energy efficiency. The act also establishes requirements for strategic long-term planning and purchasing of least-cost supply and demand resources, and three-year energy saving targets. Enacted in 2010, House Bill 8082 authorizes revenue decoupling for electric and natural gas utilities and requires utilities to submit proposals to implement these policies.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Along with other states in the Southeast, South Carolina has made progress on utility-sector energy efficiency efforts over the past few years.  The levels of energy efficiency program spending and associated energy savings, however, are still below the national average. The state's three investor-owned utilities, Duke Energy, Progress Energy Carolinas (which has merged with Duke Energy), and South Carolina Gas and Electric, all administer energy efficiency programs. South Carolina's cooperative utilities also administer some energy efficiency programs. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

South Dakota’s regulated investor-owned utilities have been implementing ratepayer funded energy efficiency programs since the mid-2000s, however the levels of efficiency program spending and associated energy savings have been lower than the national average and have not increased significantly. These programs do include a lost revenue adjustment mechanism that is calculated as a certain percentage of actual energy efficiency spending or approved energy efficiency program budgets, whichever is lesser. Many non-regulated utilities (e.g. municipals and cooperatives) in South Dakota also have energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the largest publicly-owned electric utility in the country, is the primary electricity provider in Tennessee. As a publicly-owned utility, TVA is governed by a board of directors. While past energy efficiency efforts have been modest, TVA has ramped up energy efficiency programs for electricity customers across all sectors in recent years.  Nonetheless, Tennessee falls below the national average for efficiency spending and realized savings.

The Tennessee Regulatory Authority (TRA) is the state agency charged with the setting of rates and service standards for privately-owned telephone, natural gas, electric and water utilities.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Since 1999, Texas law has required electric utilities to meet energy efficiency goals, which became the nation's first EERS.  In 2010, the Public Utilities Commission of Texas (PUCT) increased the goals from 20% of electric demand growth to 25% growth in demand in 2012 and 30% in 2013 and beyond, and later adopted S.B. 1125, which will eventually require utilities to meet EERS targets based on peak demand rather than growth in demand. While the goals have increased modestly in recent years, they are still far below most other EERS policies and as a result, utility energy efficiency program investments and savings in Texas are below the national average. 

To meet the efficiency goals, utilities administer incentive programs, which retail electric providers and energy efficiency service providers implement. Programs are typically funded through the utilities’ tariff or base rate. Utilities submit plans for the forthcoming year and reports on energy and capacity savings from the previous year to the PUCT. The PUCT approves the plans. Utilities receive performance bonuses based on their energy savings.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

In 2007, as part of its State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the following reports about energy efficiency in Texas: 

Utah's utilities administer and implement a growing portfolio of energy efficiency programs as required by the Utah Public Service Commission as part of integrated resource plans, in place since 1992, that are filed biennially by the utilities and include demand-side resources and associated programs. Utility energy efficiency program investments and energy savings have grown significantly in recent years and are now above the national average.  The state’s largest electric utility, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), serves around 80 percent of Utah’s population. These programs are funded via a 3% tariff rider on customer bills.

Utah recently passed legislation (House Joint Resolution 9) that calls for Utah's electric utilities to reduce the state's energy consumption by 1% annually. The bill also calls for natural gas utilities to save 0.5% annually.  It encourages the use of “all available cost-effective energy efficiency.”

In September 2009, the PSC approved RMP’s request to increase its utility bill surcharge to pay for demand-side management (DSM) programs to 4.6%. Utah’s main natural gas utility, Questar Gas, began implementing efficiency programs in 2007. Questar's CET decoupling mechanism was changed from a pilot program to ongoing in 2010. Utah's funding and commitment to energy efficiency programs has increased significantly over the past several years. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

For further reading, in October 2007, as part of the State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the report Utah Energy Efficiency Strategy Policy Options.

Last Updated: July 2017

Vermont is and has been among the leading states for utility energy efficiency for many years and was the first to create a statewide "energy efficiency utility". Under Vermont’s 12-year "Order of Appointment" model, Efficiency Vermont and Burlington Electric Department deliver both electric and unregulated heating-and-process-fuel energy efficiency services to residential and business consumers throughout the state. The State EEU fiscal agent receives energy efficiency charge monies collected by the electric distribution companies and disburses the funds to the EEUs.

Vermont law requires program administrators to set budgets at a level that would realize "all reasonably available, cost-effective energy efficiency."

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Virginia has made legislative progress in energy efficiency, however the implementation process has been difficult and as a result the state still falls well below the national average on energy efficiency program spending and energy savings. In 2007, Virginia set a legislative goal (S 1416) of reducing electricity consumption by 10% (from 2006 levels) by 2022. In 2008, the legislature mandated that utilities submit integrated resource plans that lay out demand-side resources. The State Corporation Commission (SCC) approved five energy efficiency programs for Dominion Power in 2010, and additional programs in 2012.  

Repeated attempts to introduce energy efficiency goals and resource standards have not been successful. The governor vetoed an energy efficiency resource standard in 2009 (SB 1248). In 2008, legislators rejected an earlier goal of 19% savings by 2025 (SB 1296). SB 111, which would have introduced innovative rate structures, did not pass. Revenue recovery has also been questioned on the basis of consumer affordability (SB 150).    

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Washington's private and public utilities have long records of offering customer energy efficiency and conservation programs supported by regional organizations including the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and the Bonneville Power Authority (BPA). Washington voters approved the Energy Independence Act in November 2006 that established an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) by setting new requirements for electricity resources, including greater use of renewable energy and conservation. Utilities are required "[T]o pursue all available conservation that is cost-effective, reliable and feasible." The legislation also requires utilities to use methodologies for analyzing and selecting demand-side resources that are consistent with the methodologies used by NPPC.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

After years of virtually no activity, West Virginia utilities have begun implementing some small-scale customer energy efficiency programs. The state is facing dramatic price increases for residential customers and a general interest in energy efficiency is emerging as a way to create a hedge against rising rates by lowering energy bills. West Virginia's state legislature proposed an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard in 2011 (see HB 2210), but the bill failed to make it through the House Judiciary Committee. 

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Wisconsin's energy efficiency programs were initiated in the mid-1980s when integrated resource planning — termed the "Advance Plan Process" — was enacted by PSCW. This process is no longer in place and has been replaced by biennial "strategic energy assessments."

Under the 2005 Wisconsin Act 141, oversight of the statewide energy efficiency and renewable resources program called Focus on Energy transferred to the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Act 141 requires investor-owned electric and natural-gas utilities to spend 1.2 percent of their annual gross operating revenues on energy efficiency and renewable resource programs. Act 141 also requires municipal and retail electric cooperative utilities to collect an average of $8 per meter to fund energy efficiency programs. Municipal and retail electric cooperative utilities can collect the dollars and participate in the Focus on Energy program or can elect to operate their own Commitment to Community programs. The investor-owned utilities formed the non-profit Statewide Energy Efficiency and Renewables Administration (SEERA) to fulfill their obligations under Act 141. SEERA is required to create and fund Focus on Energy and to contract, on the basis of competitive bids, with one or more persons to administer the programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Wyoming has relatively little energy efficiency programming throughout the state. Wyoming Public Service Commission approved demand-side-management programs for Rocky Mountain Power (RMP) that began January 1st, 2009 (see Docket No. 20000-264-EA-06). Supported by the PSC, the portfolio was largely driven by resource needs identified in the utility’s IRP. These programs represent the state’s first significant energy efficiency activity.

Cheyenne Light and Power, Black Hills Power, Carbon Power & Light, Lower Valley Energy and Questar Gas also run limited sets of energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.