State and Local Policy Database

Efficient Vehicles & Behavior

Communities can improve the efficiency of their vehicles by encouraging the choice of efficient vehicles and helping to develop the infrastructure to fuel them. Conventional vehicles with high fuel efficiency, hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and electric vehicles provide significant energy saving opportunities. Beyond vehicle purchase choices, local governments can implement policies like anti-idling ordinances to encourage efficient driver behavior and help to reduce fuel waste. Regional transportation partnerships and coalitions can also be an important organizing tool for communities to reduce their overall transportation related energy use.

This sub-category includes information on four topics: Provision by the local government of purchase incentives for conventional vehicles with high fuel efficiency, hybrids, plug-in hybrids, or electric vehicles; Incentive programs to support the implementation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure; Policies that encourage efficient driving behavior, such as anti-idling ordinances, and apply to all private vehicles or a subset of private vehicles; Active engagement by staff from the local jurisdiction in a regional clean transportation partnership, such as a Clean Cities Coalition.

Citizens owning qualifying clean fuel vehicles (including hybrid and electric vehicles) are eligible to receive 100% tax relief on the first $3,000 of the vehicle's value and 50% tax relief on the next $17,000 of the vehicle's value. The tax rate is $5.00 per $100 of assessed value. Arlington County's electric vehicle policy supports installation of charging stations, but does not provide incentives. 

To promote efficient driving behavior, Arlington’s busses may not idle for longer than 10 minutes. The city of Arlington actively participates in the Virginia Clean Cities Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in all transportation across Virginia.

Last updated: October 2015

At this time, Atlanta does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. However, in 2014, the city adopted zoning regulations to ease the installation of EV infrastructure. The city owns 160 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, the City of Austin does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. However, Austin Energy offers a rebate for electric vehicle charging stations installed at homes, businesses, multifamily properties and auto dealers. Austin Energy also owns 162 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Baltimore does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city does own 97 electric charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Birmingham does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. However, the city does own 10EV charging stations that are available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, the City of Boston does not offer incentives to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. However, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) provides the Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (MassEVIP) Workplace Charging, which is an open grant program that provides incentives to employers for the acquisition of Level 1 and Level 2 electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. Additionally, the Transportation Access Plan Agreements requires that all new commercial and residential buildings include stipulations that 5% of parking in must have an EV charging station. oreover, the city owns 72EV charging stations that are available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Boulder does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. The Boulder Smart Grid Plug-In Electric/Hybrid Vehicles Project works to increase the use of plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles in Boulder. The city abides by Colorado's anti-idling policy. Bouder actively engages with the Denver Metro Clean Cities Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in all transportation across the region.

Last Updated: October 2015

At this time, Burlington does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure.

Burlington follows Vermont Act 57 S1110, prohibiting vehicles to idle for longer than 5 minutes. Burlington also actively participates in the Vermont Clean Cities Coalition, which aims to reduce petroleum use in transportation across Vermont.

Last updated: October 2015

At this time, Carrboro does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure. Carrboro has not yet established efficient driving rules, such as an anti-idling ordinance, for private vehicles.  Municipal staff from Carrboro engage with the Triangle Clean Cities Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in transportation.

Last updated: April 2014

At this time, Charlotte does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city owns 55 charging stations available to the public.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Charlottesville does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. Charlottesville administers a mini-grant fund to spur the development of a publicly-accessible EV charging network. Municipal staff from Richmond engage with the Virginia Clean Cities Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in transportation. Most recently, the city’s EV charging network mini-grant initiative involved Virginia Clean Cities.

Last updated: October 2015

The Chicago Department of Transportation (City) administers Drive Clean Chicago, a program delivering incentives to alternative fuel projects in the six-county Chicago area. The current incentive funds available are Drive Clean Truck, Drive Clean Taxi and Drive Clean Station.  The Drive Clean Truck Voucher program is a point of sale discount program for the purchase or lease of electric and hybrid trucks and buses. The Drive Clean Taxi voucher program offers point of sale discounts on electric public passenger vehicles including taxis, transportation network providers and livery vehicles. Additionally, City of Chicago offers a 1-day easy permit process for installing electric vehicle charging stations. The city has 122 charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Cincinnati does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. This city has 27 EV charging stations available for public use. Municipal staff from Cincinnati engage with the Clean Fuels Ohio Coalition

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Cleveland does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. This city has 10 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Columbus does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 38 charging stations available for public use. 

Columbus is part of the Clean Fuels Ohio Coalition

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Dallas does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure.

The city owns 81 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Denver does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city owns 63 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Detroit does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city owns 39 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Dubuque does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure.

Dubuque promotes anti-idling through a voluntary pledge encompassing many sustainability elements. Also, Dubuque actively participates in the Iowa Clean Cities Coalition which aims to reduce petroleum use in all of transportation across all of Iowa.

Last Updated: October 2013

At this time, El Paso does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city owns 21 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Fort Worth does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure. The city owns 19 charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Hartford does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The City of Hartford has made 18 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Houston does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. However, Houston offers the Houston Drives Electric initiative. The 2011 Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan mapped Houston’s way to securing funding and installing charging ports. The City of Houston has made 105 EV charging stations available for public use.  The city is part of the Houston-Galveston Clean Cities Coalition. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Indianapolis does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 40 EV charging stations available for public use.  

Last updated: January 2017

Jacksonville's utility, JEA, offers EV tax benefits and rebates  for citizens to purchase or lease a plug-in or EV vehicle. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 46 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Kansas City does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 109EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

Knoxville offers free public charging stations, but does not yet offer incentives for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure.

Knoxville has not yet established efficient driving rules, such as an anti-idling ordinance, for private vehicles. Knoxville actively participates in the East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in East-Tennessee transportation.

Last updated: October 2015

At this time, Las Vegas does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. The city also does not yet have incentives supporting the installation of electric vehicle charging stations. The city has  84 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Lawrence does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure.

To encourage efficient driving, Lawrence optimized traffic signal length in 2012. Also, Lawrence is an active member in the Kansas City Regional Clean Cities Coalition, which aims to reduce petroleum use in all of transportation across the region.

Last Updated: October 2013

At this time, Los Angeles does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. To foster increased development of EV charging infrastructure, Los Angeles offers the Charge Up L.A. rebate program under which residential customers may receive up to $500 for a home charger, and commercial customers can receive up to $4,000 for each hardwired EV charger installed. This city has 268 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Louisville does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. This city has 18 EV charging stations available for public use

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Madison does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure. Madison does however, have 27 EV charging stations that are available to all Madison Gas and Electric customers.

Madison prohibits the idling of all trucks for longer than 15 minutes. Madison is an active participant with the Dane County Clean Air Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in all transportation across the region.

Last Updated: October 2015

At this time, Memphis does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. This city has 16 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Miami does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. This city has 46 EV charging stations available for public use

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Milwaukee does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. This city has 11 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Minneapolis does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 51EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Nashville does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 71 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: Januuary 2017

At this time, New Orleans does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 11 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Municipal staff from New Orleans engage with the Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuels Partnership Coalition, which works to reduce petroleum use in transportation.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, New York City does not offer incentives to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. The city's Local Law No. 10 passed in 2013 requires electric vehicle charging ports to be added to all parking lots. The city has 207 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Oakland does not offer any incentives for the purchase of hybrid or electric vehicles. The city also has not invested in EV charging stations that are made available to private vehicles nor does it offer incentives to support their installation.

Oakland assigns the Equipment Services Manager as the Coordinator of the East Bay Clean Cities coalition. The city does not have an anti-idling policy that applies to all vehicles.  

Updated: February 2016

At this time, Oklahoma City does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure.The city has 8 EV charging stations available for public use . 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Orlando does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure.The city has 105 EV charging stations available for public use . 

Last updated: January 2017

Park City offers priority parking at government facilities (City Hall, Library, Recreation Facilities) for vehicles rated at 40+ MPG or utilizing alternative fuel options (e.g., electric or CNG); carpools also qualify for priority parking. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure.

Park City prohibits idling of vehicles for longer than 3 minutes through Park City Municipal Code 9-10. Park City actively participates in the Utah Clean Cities Coalition, which aims to reduce petroleum use in transportation across Utah.

Last updated: October 2015

At this time, Philadelphia does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 45 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Phoenix does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 97 EV charging stations available for public use

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Pittsburgh does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 46 EV charging stations available for public use 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, the City of Portland does not offer incentives to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. However, the Climate Action Plan includes actions to support installing charging stations across Portland. Portland City Council adopted an EV strategy, the "Electric Vehicles: The Portland Way," which outlines information on how to receive a EV charging port permit instantly online and the installation inspected within 24 to 48 hours. The city has 109 EV charging stations available for public use.

Portland does participate in the Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition, which has the goal to reduce petroleum use in transportation across the Portland area.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Providence does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 19 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, the City of Raleigh does not offer incentives to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The City of Raleigh has 54 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Richmond does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 27 EV charging stations available for public use.  

Last updated: January 2017

Citizens of Riverside are eligible for a rebate toward the purchase of a new qualified alternative fuel vehicle purchased from a City of Riverside automobile dealership. This rebate is worth up to $500 for a qualified EV or $250 for a qualified electric motorcycle or a neighborhood EV. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 35 EV charging stations available for public use

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Sacramento does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 80 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

Salt Lake City incentivizes the purchase of electric and hybrid vehicles by issuing free metered parking decals for "green vehicles." There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 36 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, San Antonio does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 64 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, San Diego does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 184 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, the City of San Francisco does not offer incentives to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. San Francisco, along with other Bay Area cities, offer the Charging Infrastructure Promotion, a policy plan to expedite the permit and installation processes for charging outlets, provide incentives for employers who install charging infrastructure at the workplace, and develop standard regulations governing PEV infrastructure across the region in the Bay Area EV Corridor. The city has 167 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, San Jose does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure The city has 89 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Seattle does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. Seattle’s electrical code mandates EV charging infrastructure to be provided in newly-constructed vehicle parking facilities. The city has 125 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, St. Louis does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 12 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Tampa does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of commercial or private EV charging infrastructure. The city has 50 EV charging stations available for public use. 

Last updated: January 2017

At this time, Virginia Beach does not offer incentives for citizens to purchase hybrid, plug-in, or EV vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 10 EV charging stations available for public use.

Last updated: January 2017

Citizens of Washington are eligible for reduced registration fees, tax exemptions, and time-of-day and day-of-week driving restrictions with the purchase of alternative-fuel or fuel-efficient vehicles. There are no incentives available for the construction of EV charging infrastructure. The city has 98 EV charging stations available for public use.

Washington is an active participant in the Greater Washington Region Clean Cities Coalition.Last updated: January 2017