State and Local Policy Database

Water Services

The actions of water utilities play an important role in the efficiency of a community. Considerable energy savings can be gained from improvements made to pumps and motors, and a significant, often uncaptured, opportunity exists for energy generation in processing wastewater. Beyond efforts to directly conserve energy, energy demand can also be reduced through investments aimed at reducing water demand. Finally, investments in distributed stormwater systems that integrate vegetation and permeable surfaces, commonly known as green infrastructure or low-impact development, can reduce energy consumption required for water treatment.

This sub-category includes information on three topics:

  • Water Efficiency – Water efficiency programs funded by local or regional water utility; Water savings targets set by the water utility or the local government.
  • Energy Efficiency in Water Services – Energy efficiency target, comprehensive energy efficiency strategy or energy efficiency initiatives in place at water and/or wastewater utility; waste energy capture at wastewater facilities (self-generation through methane capture or other means on-site or off-site use of captured energy resources).
  • Green Stormwater Infrastructure – Policies, water rates, and incentives from the local government or a utility encouraging developers and property owners to incorporate green stormwater infrastructure; Local government funding for green infrastructure projects on public property, such as streets, schools and parks.

Water Efficiency

Arlington Department of Environmental Services runs a conservation outreach program and stormwater outreach education program. Water conservation kits are given out at events such as the County Fair and Energy Scavenger Hunts. Additionally, the energy program, AIRE, promotes water conservation through its programs, including Green Games. Arlington County has not yet established a water efficiency target.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Arlington Water Pollution Control Plant is part of the County’s government activities’ 76 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 target, but there is no goal set specifically for the plant. Arlington is currently conducting a Master Plan for its solids treatments process which could result in substantial energy efficiency savings. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Green Building Policy includes policies for developers and property owners to encourage green infrastructure onto their private properties. The Chesapeake Bay permit requirements also applies to all new development in the County. Projects for green infrastructure on public property are funded through the County's stormwater fund. Additional funding is available for residential and business properties for small-scale practices. The MS4 permit in Arlington County requires stormwater mitigation on any land disturbance greater than 2,500 square feet, including staging areas. 

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

Although the energy and water utilities do not offer joint efficiency programs, the Office of Water Efficiency does offer water efficiency programs. For example, they offer Water Saver Kits available to water customers. Each kit contains a showerhead, faucet aerator, and toilet-leak-detection tablets. The City of Atlanta offers rebates for high-efficiency toilets for residential and multifamily units. The City has also adopted a goal of achieving a 20% reduction in per capita citywide water consumption below its 2009 levels by 2020.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Under the Power to Change initiative, all city facilities, including the Department of Watershed Management facilities are striving to meet a 20% energy reduction below 2009 levels by 2020. The RM Clayton wastewater treatment facility’s combined heat and power system converts waste biogas into energy which is used on-site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Atlanta’s 2016 Green Infrastructure Strategic Action Plan incorporates best practices into stormwater management, with a goal of reducing the city’s stormwater runoff by 225 million gallons annually. The City also has a Green Infrastructure Task Force which consists of city staff and partner organizations. Currently, more than 10 green infrastructure projects are underway.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Austin Water partners with Austin Energy and Texas Gas Service’s weatherization assistance programs to provide low and moderate-income customers with water and energy efficient fixtures and plumbing repairs. In 2014, Austin’s city council adopted a goal to reduce total water use to 138 gallons per capita per day and residential water use to 85 gallons per capita per day by 2024. This is an advancement of their 2007 and 2010 water saving goals. Austin Water’s multi-faceted conservation program coupled with a strong response by Austin residents has the utility on track to meet or exceed those goals. Austin implements tiered water pricing and also offers rebates for residential customers such as WaterWise landscaping, rainwater harvesting, free shower heads, and other products and actions. There are also rebates available for businesses include rainwater harvesting and commercial process rebates.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Austin Water tracks its energy efficiency at the facility, process, and system levels with a goal of 3% reduction in kilowatt-hours consumed per million gallons (kWh/MG) per year until 2020. Operational optimization and capital improvements both contribute to regularly meeting these goals. Collectively, the water treatment and distribution system recorded its highest efficiency (lowest kWh/MG) in almost 10 years in July 2016. The Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant recently upgraded an old combined heat and power (CHP) facility. Since March 2013, this new facility has been generating 100% of its heat and electricity demand through combustion of the ~700,000 cubic feet per day of biogas produced onsite through anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Austin has undertaken a multi-pronged initiative to encourage the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices and Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) in a public and private development and in re-development. This includes changes to city regulatory policies to lessen or remove barriers to or to otherwise encourage the use of LID practices and GSI, educational outreach on LID and GSI, demonstration projects at public facilities, and the installation of GSI controls on city street projects. The city is also investigating the degree to which distributed GSI controls can be used to alleviate or mitigate localized flooding in urbanized areas that is caused by inadequate storm drain capacity.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although the Department of Public Works has not yet established a water efficiency goal and does not have any funded programs to help customers save water, it is currently working on developing a water conservation plan. Additionally, Blue Water Baltimore does provide free water audits and rebates for rain barrels, green roofs, and other conservation landscaping to all city residents. The energy utility does not provide efficiency programs alongside the water utility. The Department of Public Works has also launched their BaltiMeter project, which aims to replace water metering infrastructure and upgrade the meter reading system.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Department of Public Works has not set an energy efficiency goal for water operations, nor has established programs to expand energy efficiency through the Baltimore water services system. However, Baltimore’s Back River wastewater treatment facilities do have a system to generate 3 MW of energy to be used on-site from methane recapture.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In 2014, the City of Baltimore launched the Growing Green Initiative (GGI) as a way to advance green infrastructure in the city. GGI engages communities, as well as city government to develop green spaces that advance stormwater mitigation goals.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although the water and energy utilities do not provide water efficiency programs, Birmingham Water Works does provide this list of helpful tips for saving water at home. Currently, Birmingham Water Works does not have a specified goal for water efficiency.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Birmingham has not yet established a goal or comprehensive strategy for energy efficiency in its municipal water service operations. We could not confirm if any of the city’s Wastewater Treatment Facilities self-generate energy that is used on site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There are no programs, policies, funding, or incentive structures in place to further encourage joint green infrastructure and stormwater management in Birmingham.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Boston Water and Sewer Commission (BWSC) and Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) fund water efficiency programs available to all water customers. While BWSC does not directly issue rebates and incentives under the MassSave program, Boston’s energy utilities—National Grid and Eversource Energy—do offer rebates and incentives for water saving technologies. Notably, Boston customers are offered no-cost water-efficiency kits that include kitchen and bathroom faucet aerators, a low-flow replacement showerhead, a water-efficiency gauge to test showerheads and sinks, and dye tablets to check for toilet leaks. Water demand in the MWRA territory has decreased by nearly a third since the 1980s, in part through efficiency initiatives. Although no community-wide water savings target have been adopted by the city or its utilities, the MWRA has a comprehensive, long-term strategy for water savings as described in their 2013 Water System Master Plan

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

MWRA has completed energy audits at 33 of its 36 major facilities. Implementation of audit recommendations and other process optimization efforts is estimated to save almost $2 million annually as part of its Long Term Sustainability Program. MWRA continues to reduce its electrical demand by optimizing process operations and renewable generation—including wind, solar, hydroelectric and biogas—and implementation of energy efficiency measures. Over the past 5 years, they have achieved a reduction of over 10% or a total of 18M kWh. Recently, MWRA entered into a memorandum of agreement with Eversource to identify and implement energy efficiency opportunities throughout MWRA's day-to-day operations and construction programs, and also to achieve higher rebates from the utility for implementing energy efficiency projects. MWRA also calls out Environmental Sustainability as a key strategic priority in their Five-Year Strategic Business Plan for FY 2016–2020. These initiatives include continuing to audit all facilities on their regular audit schedule, optimization of processes, cost effective renewable energy deployments, continued maximization of GHG reductions and fully leveraging all available utility rebates and incentives for energy efficiency. Finally, MWRA self-generates approximately 33 million kWh/year from methane capture at the Deer Island wastewater treatment plant.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Boston Water and Sewer Commission issued a Stormwater Best Management Practices Implementation Plan, with distinct recommendations and references to Green Infrastructure Demonstration projects including City Hall Plaza and Central Square in East Boston. In addition, BWSC is in the process of drafting a Green Infrastructure plan for stormwater runoff, which should be released within the next year.

Under BWSC’s site plan requirements, developers designing new development and re-development projects must fully investigate methods for retaining or infiltrating stormwater on-site before the commission will consider a plan to discharge stormwater to its system. The commission’s 2015–2017 capital improvement program includes $1,350,000 to install stormwater BMPs and green infrastructure components in three areas of the city.

The City of Boston also requires that almost all new or major renovation projects within the district include groundwater recharge (see, Groundwater Conservation Overlay District (GCOD)). Working with the BWSC, a project must demonstrate the required amount of recharge capacity, how much recharge is being provided, and locations of the supply and overflow lines along with any connections to BWSC lines. Typically, all projects must be able to recharge the first inch of rain.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Boulder has set a goal to reduce water use by 20% from 2000 levels by 2035. Boulder Water Utilities offers a Water Conservation Program including a Toilet "Freebate," rebates for drip kits and timers, xeriscaping garden seminars, low-cost xeriscaping plants called "Garden-in-a-box”, free outdoor irrigation audits and free commercial water assessments. The Water Conservation Program also supports municipal water conservation efforts and analyzes city water loss information.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Boulder has set an energy efficiency goal for water services in municipal operations in the energy performance contract. Since 2000, Boulder has reduced energy use in municipal water operations by 25%. There are methane recapture facilities on Boulder’s wastewater treatment plants.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Boulder has implemented a stormwater charge/flood management fee for all multifamily housing to fund the city’s flood and stormwater utility fund.   Stormwater efforts include a requirement for education and outreach and public involvement in addition to inspection/enforcement.  The Keep It Clean Partnership effort which focus on stormwater outreach and education as managed by the city. 

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

To increase community-wide water efficiency, Burlington City Council passed a resolution to waive all building, electrical, and zoning permit fees associated with the installation of thermal hot water equipment for one year.  Also, Burlington Electric provides low-flow faucets and shower heads for multi-family housing units. There is no established water efficiency target.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Burlington has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. There are no programs or policies in place to increase energy efficiency through the Burlington water system.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There are no policies, programs, funding, or incentive structures in place to encourage green infrastructure stormwater management in Burlington

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

The Orange Water and Sewer Authority enacted a conservation policy to develop, fund, and implement cost-effective water conservation and demand management programs.  We could not confirm if the utility has established explicit water efficiency targets.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Though an energy-savings target has not been set, the Orange Water and Sewer Authority adopted a sustainability resolution in 2007 that included an objective to increase energy efficiency in operations; the authority also included a goal to develop an energy plan in their three-year strategic plan.  At their wastewater treatment plan, boilers use biogas captured from the treatment process. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There is no funding in place to implement green stormwater infrastructure and we could not find information regarding locally enacted policies, rates, or incentives to encourage green infrastructure on private properties to manage stormwater.

Last Updated: April 2014

Water Efficiency

Although the energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs, the city’s WaterSmart program encourages the efficient use of water for indoor and outdoor purposes and offers consumer low-flow plumbing devices, smart irrigation controls, and other products.

Charlotte Water is an active member of the Catawba-Wateree Water Management Group, which released a River Basin Water Supply Master Plan in 2014. This plan includes an evaluation of numerous options to extend the available water supply in the region, and long-term basin-wide strategies to ensure sustainable and efficient water supplies for decades.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Currently, Charlotte Water is tracking internal monthly energy use for the wastewater and water treatment plants with an internal target of collecting three years of data in order to set improvement goals. Charlotte Water has a goal to increase the number of smart irrigation devices installed by residents by 5% and increase the number of individuals reached through public events and conservation education efforts by 10%. In 2016, Charlotte Water installed 283 smart irrigation devices and reached 27,605 individuals with public events and conservation education efforts. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Charlotte has a Post-Construction Stormwater Ordinance that uses green infrastructure to manage stormwater run-off. This ordinance requires no-build zones and undisturbed natural buffers of varying widths along streams. This can require that a portion of the site be left as undisturbed natural area, and the installation of approved on-site stormwater best management practices, such as rain gardens, detention ponds, and wetlands to collect and treat stormwater. This can also include the construction of stormwater detention measures that reduce flooding risks for downstream properties and streets.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Charlottesville funds several rebates for water efficiency, including a rain barrel rebate and WaterSense toilet rebate.  The city has not adopted a formal water savings target, but reductions have been incorporated into routine practices by retrofitting municipal buildings with high-efficiency fixtures and installing rainwater harvesting systems at municipal facilities. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Charlottesville does not have a specific energy efficiency target for its operations of its public utilities, but the regional wastewater utility has pursued initiatives to save energy at its Moores Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant.  The wastewater treatment plant also uses biogas captured from the treatment process to generate electricity onsite. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Charlottesville adopted a stormwater utility fee and credit program to encourage the incorporation of green infrastructure onto private properties to manage stormwater.  The fee will also increase capital funding for green stormwater infrastructure. 

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

Although Chicago’s water and energy utilities do not run joint water and energy efficiency programs, Chicago’s city-run MeterSave program provides significant incentives to the community. Through the MeterSave program, the city’s Department of Water Management supplies a free water meter to unmetered residents and business customers, and guarantees bills will be lower than the estimated rate for 7 years post installation. The City of Chicago also offers rain barrels and indoor or outdoor conservation kits to homeowners.

The City of Chicago has a goal to decrease water use by 2% annually, according to the Sustainable Chicago 2015 plan.  The City of Chicago also has a program to aggressively replace old water mains, thus reducing water loss from leaking pipes. Through Building a New Chicago, DWM is replacing 900 miles of water main—most of which are over 100 years old—over a 10-year period.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Both the Department of Water Management (DWM) and Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRD) have extensive programs to increase energy efficiency across operations, and are pursuing energy efficiency initiatives. DWM is converting several steam-powered turbines and boilers at five pumping stations in the water distribution system to electricity, saving more than $6.4 million/year in energy costs, with additional savings from lower operating costs, and a greenhouse gas emission reduction of 75%. The conversion of the pumping stations from steam to electricity are part of the “Building a New Chicago” program. 

MWRD has also implemented a sewer thermal heat and cooling system to save energy at its water reclamation plant, where methane is also collected for electricity generation. Moreover, the MWRD operates several anaerobic digesters, generating up to one-third of its energy from the digestion process. A new project will divert 440 tons a day of food waste from the city of Chicago’s solid waste stream, feed it into the digesters at the Calumet treatment plant in Chicago, generate 160% more methane gas, and sell some of this gas back into the natural gas pipeline.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In 2014, the city released a comprehensive Green Stormwater Infrastructure Strategy that aims to use green infrastructure investments to manage Chicago’s stormwater runoff. In 2014, under this plan, $50 million from the city’s capital budget was allocated over the next 5 years to fund green stormwater infrastructure projects on municipally-owned sites. Examples of initiatives include the city of Chicago’s Rain Ready program, which offers information and resources to help homes and businesses become rain ready and protected from flooding. The program also offers water conservation and efficiency information. The City provides free rain barrels as part of the MeterSave program as an incentive to install water meters and conserve water. The City’s Stormwater ordinance requires private property owners to provide onsite water infiltration for new and major developments, which strongly encourage green infrastructure projects. The City of Chicago’s Department of Forestry also has an extensive program to plant and protect trees throughout the city, with more than 26,000 trees planted since 2011. MWRD also has a stormwater management program with nineteen goals in place.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Greater Cincinnati Water Works has not yet established a water efficiency goal, and does not have funded programs to help customers save water. The energy utilities do not provide water efficiency as part of their energy efficiency program offerings.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

MSD is working to reduce energy consumption by auditing and improving light fixtures and the heating and cooling systems at wastewater treatment plants. MSD also self generates energy at wastewater treatment plants by using dewatered sludge to fire two incinerators.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Cincinnati does not have policies, programs, or incentive structures in place to encourage green stormwater management on private property, but MSD has funded public projects that include the goal of improving green infrastructure.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The energy and water utilities do not provide joint water and energy efficiency programs. The Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) funds a rain barrel program and Cleveland Water helps administer its implementation. The Sustainable Cleveland Municipal Action Plan also chronicles Cleveland’s water efficiency, water conservation, and water reuse and recycling strategies. Cleveland’s total energy use reduction goal (10% by 2016 and 20% by 2020 below 2010 baseline) includes energy use from pumping water, which is the largest source of energy use in Cleveland. As part of the Cleveland 2030 District, the City of Cleveland has a goal of reducing water use in its existing buildings 50% by 2030 below 2010 baseline.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Sustainable Cleveland Municipal Action Plan set targets for reducing water use in municipal facilities (20% by 2020 and 50% by 2030 below 2010 baseline), but community-wide savings targets have not been set. Additionally, the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District joined DOE’s Accelerator on Wastewater Infrastructure, and will therefore aim to improve energy efficiency at participating water resource recovery facilities by at least 30% and integrate at least one resource recovery measure. NEORSD’s Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant uses waste heat to generate electricity for use onsite.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

NEORSD provides green infrastructure grants to local governments and residents to address flooding, erosion, and water quality concerns through innovative stormwater management practices, and stream and wetland restoration. This includes local demonstrations of rain gardens, bioretention, and other site-based stormwater management practices. In addition, Cleveland has also passed a Complete and Green Streets ordinance that requires consideration of green infrastructure on street projects.

Last Updated: January 2017

 

Water Efficiency

The City of Columbus and Columbia Gas of Ohio have partnered on water efficient spray nozzles for restaurants. In addition, Columbus’s GreenSpot program encourages residents and businesses to adopt conservation measures, which includes water efficiency measures. The GreenSpot Backyards Program provides $50 rebates towards rain barrels, native plants, and $100 towards trees. As of January 2017, GreenSpot had over 15,550 members. The City of Columbus has set a target for water efficiency to reduce gallons of treated water produced to 42,284 gallons per capita, which is a 3% reduction, by 2020.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Columbus has set a 20% energy reduction goal by 2020, compared to 2013. The Division of Water and Division of Wastewater of the Department of Public Utilities have reduced energy usage at treatment plants by 5% for electricity and 50% for natural gas. This results in an 18.8% overall energy reduction (kBtu). The only energy generation from the City’s wastewater treatment plant comes from a partnership with a privately owned digester facility, Quasar.  The City pays Quasar to take sludge which Quasar uses to generate electricity.  The City currently has an RFP out to provide design work for future CPH plants at both wastewater treatment plants.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City has recently received approval for its Columbus Blueprint: Clean Streams, Strong Neighborhoods plan, which will eliminate sanitary sewer overflows, and the plan includes significant green infrastructure investment. In 2017, the City will move forward with the Blueprint in earnest, building approximately 4.4 acres of new green infrastructure designed to remove approximately 20% of total suspended solids (TSS) from the run-off. The Blueprint is scheduled to continue for at least 20 years, adding over 70 acres of green infrastructure in the right-of-way, on vacant lots, and in parks. In addition, other City departments have also committed to green infrastructure. The Public Service Department is incorporating green infrastructure into roadway projects, and green infrastructure is routinely built at new city buildings, such as fire stations and health centers.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Dallas’s water and energy utilities do not jointly administer water and energy efficiency programs. The city has watering restrictions and offers its own water efficiency programs including the New Throne for your Home program, irrigation system checks, rebate programs, multi-sector water audits, and support for minor plumbing repairs. Dallas’s Water Conservation Strategic Plan 2016-2020 calls for an average of 1% per year reduction in per capita consumption for the five-year planning period.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Dallas City Council’s strategic plan calls for energy recapture opportunities in the water and wastewater systems. The Southside wastewater treatment plant has a bio-digester that generates electricity used on-site. There are currently no programs in place to expand energy efficiency through the Dallas water services system.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There are no policies, programs, funding, or incentive structures in place to encourage green infrastructure and stormwater management in Dallas.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Denver Water partnered with Xcel Energy on Xcel’s Commercial Refrigeration Efficiency pilot program by providing efficient water pre-rinse spray valves when applicable as well as water efficiency information. Denver Water also partnered with the Mile High Youth Corps, who installed Denver Water’s efficient fixtures as well as conducted energy retrofits for lighting and other measures. Furthermore, Denver Water offers free water audits to all customers as well as toilet and irrigation rebates and incentives. As part of the city’s 2020 goals, Denver plans to reduce its use of potable water for irrigation of parks and golf courses by 22%, as well as reduce its use of potable water in buildings by 20%, as compared to a 2012 baseline. In addition to City of Denver’s 2020 sustainability goals, Denver Water’s Conservation Plan aims to accelerate the pace of water conservation in its service area and reduce overall water use from pre-2002 drought usage by 22% by 2016.

In addition, Denver Water has a number of conservation rules that apply to its service area.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Denver Water has not yet established a specific goal for energy efficiency in water services. Denver Water has implemented several energy efficiency initiatives at its pumping stations and reports its greenhouse gas emissions to The Climate Registry. As part of Denver Water’s comprehensive Operations Complex Redevelopment plan, overall energy use is expected to decrease by 5% annually. Additionally, Denver Water participates in Xcel Energy’s Process Efficiency program to identify opportunities for energy conservation specific to pumping operations.

The Metro Wastewater Reclamation District also participates in Xcel Energy’s Process Efficiency program to identify opportunities for energy conservation specific to wastewater operations.

The Metro Wastewater District operates a 5 MW combined heat and power (CHP) system that captures methane gas and generates electricity used on-site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There is no funding designated specifically for green stormwater infrastructure on public property, as green infrastructure would be part of the base design per city efforts to increase green infrastructure in all construction. The City of Denver absolutely plans to increase its investment in green infrastructure to manage stormwater. The City is currently finalizing its implementation strategy for the water quality program which will be released in early 2017. This plan outlines not only the areas of the city most in need of water quality treatment, but it also details numerous green infrastructure projects the city plans to implement and projects that are already in design and/or construction phases. In addition, the Ultra Urban Green Infrastructure Guidelines aim to bolster green infrastructure for both public and private projects in Denver. Most importantly, the City Council recently approved an important wastewater rate increase, a portion of which will go directly to the city’s water quality and green infrastructure efforts beginning in 2017.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

There are currently no water efficiency goals, policies, or programs in place for the City of Detroit.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Currently, there are no programs in place for energy efficiency in water operations. Detroit’s wastewater treatment plants do not have methane self-generation capacity, but the facility’s solar panels have a generating capacity of 20 kW and produce an estimated 21,500 kWh per year.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In 2013, the City of Detroit updated their Stormwater Management Program Plan to reduce and control wet weather discharges from its combined sewer system. This includes guidelines for educational outreach, new construction, redevelopment, and municipal operations. In 2015, the City released a Stormwater Management Program Progress Report, which discusses progress since the 2013 plan release.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Though Dubuque has not established a specific target for water efficiency, the city has a rain garden assistance program, which makes funding available for buying rain barrels and building rain gardens.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Although the city has not set a target for energy efficiency through municipal water supply operations, Dubuque is converting its wastewater treatment plant to incorporate anaerobic digestion. The project will use waste water effluent for geothermal heating and cooling, in addition to methane recapture.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

To maintain its stormwater management fund, Dubuque has established a stormwater management charge. Charges are computed on residential and nonresidential property based on the number of single family units or area of impervious property.  Also, the Green Alley pilot project reconstructed existing asphalt alleys with pervious pavement surfaces in order to minimize stormwater runoff.

Last Updated: October 2013

Water Efficiency

The City of El Paso does not have joint water and energy efficiency programs. The city uses reclaimed water and gives away water-efficient shower heads. El Paso Water Utility’s current per capita use is 132 gpcd (gallons per capita per day). According to their 2014 Water Conservation Plan, the City aims to lower the per capita use to 118 gpcd by the year 2060, which equates to a decrease in per capita use of 3 gallons per person per day per decade.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

El Paso Water Utility’s updated Strategic Plan for 2015-2016 outlines strategies to increase efficiency, such as by reducing water main breaks by 10% and reducing operation budget and electricity costs by 2% over the next 3 years. The Plan also aims to reduce energy consumption by 1% and increase water capacity by 3 MGD through resource recovery by 2015. El Paso Water Utilities has installed three biogas recovery systems at wastewater treatment plants. This accounts for 25% energy savings. The utility is implementing energy management initiatives that reduce energy costs and is investing in equipment that protects critical operations from interruptions in the energy supply.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The ordinance that created the stormwater utility requires that 10% of the revenue from the stormwater fee be used for projects that combine stormwater management with the preservation of open spaces, wilderness areas, and park ponds. The city is purchasing arroyos with the intent to keep them in their natural state. In addition, the City of El Paso’s SmartCode encourages developers to implement green infrastructure, including rain gardens, bioswales, and other forms of landscape irrigation.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of Forth Worth does not have any joint water and energy efficiency programs in place. The city does have a SmartFlush program to replace residential toilets with high-efficiency toilets and has time-of-day watering restrictions. Fort Worth’s goals are based on the recommendations of the Texas Water Conservation Implementation Task Force, which suggested a 1% reduction in gallons of water used per capita per day per year.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Fort Worth Water Department participates in the city's energy conservation programs. In terms of energy efficiency, the Village Creek Water Reclamation Facility has been involved with Johnson Controls Inc., as part of an ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contract), to increase on-site electrical generation to 50% and reduce energy consumption by 20%. The Fort Worth Water Department participates in self-generation by producing 1500 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of methane gas from anaerobic digesters.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

While the City looks for opportunities to encourage the use of green infrastructure in both public and private projects, there is no formal plan or regulation for joint green infrastructure and stormwater management policies. Additionally, the city’s stormwater management division has a credit policy that provides reduced stormwater utility fees for properties that have water quality features or practices. Funding for green infrastructure and water quality projects is made available through the stormwater utility.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although the local water and energy utilities do not offer joint efficiency programs in Hartford, Eversource and Connecticut Natural Gas’s Home Energy Solutions and Home Energy Solutions-Income Eligible programs will replace inefficient faucet aerators and showerheads. Hartford’s Metropolitan District (MDC) is currently discussing setting a water savings target, but none is yet in place.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The MDC has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations, and there are currently no programs in place for energy efficiency in water operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Under the Clean Water Project, the MDC developed a five-pronged approach to address the City’s stormwater overflow problem and to comply with a federal consent decree form the EPA and a state consent order from the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection. This includes projects to improve inflow and infiltration, large-scale efforts to separate the sewer system, and a program that distributes rain barrels to homeowners.

Currently, there are no dedicated funding or incentive structures in place to further encourage green infrastructure and stormwater management in Hartford.

Last Updated: February 2017

Water Efficiency

Houston does not have any jointly administered water and energy efficiency programs. Houston has a water conservation target of reducing unaccounted water use by 11% by 2020, as well as a target to reduce residential water usage by little more than 1 gallon per day by 2019, or a 1.6% reduction over five years. The City has committed both labor and resources in support of its Waterworks Education Center, which currently serves as an education center for water-related efforts in the community. The City recently established a water conservation task force to develop conservation goals and best practices.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Houston’s Department of Public Works has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. There are currently no programs in place for energy efficiency in water operations. The City’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Houston leads the $205 million Bayou Greenways 2020 initiative, which includes improvements to stormwater management through green infrastructure as one of its objectives. Bayou Greenways 2020 is a public-private partnership between Houston Parks Board, the Houston Parks and Recreation Department, and the Harris County Flood Control District. The initiative will create a continuous parks system along Houston’s major waterways, transform 3,000 underutilized acres into public greenspace, and add 80 new miles of hike-and-bike trails to the city.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although there are currently no joint energy and water efficiency programs, Citizens Water does provide this list of helpful tips for saving water at home. Currently, Indianapolis does not have a specified water-saving goal.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

As of August 2011, the Citizens Energy Group assumed responsibility for Indianapolis’s water and wastewater utilities. Citizens Energy Group pledged to operate the utilities for community benefit and to create operating efficiencies that would lower costs. Combining the city’s water and wastewater systems with Citizens' natural gas, steam, and chilled water utilities will help to reduce future utility rate increases by 25% from the increases currently projected. During 2015, Citizens Energy Group implemented measures in their operating facilities to reduce energy consumption and enhance the efficiency of their operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Sustainable Infrastructure Initiative's Green Supplemental Document provides design guidance to the design community for stormwater conveyance and treatment and to the office of code enforcement to approve site and building plans that incorporate sustainable infrastructure. Each year, the city’s Office of Sustainability and United Water collaborate on the Green Infrastructure Grant Program to promote the construction of green infrastructure, such as green roofs, porous pavement, and rain gardens.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

JEA provides a free computer-based home energy assessment that provides a review of both water and electricity use, as well as abnormal consumption alerts, and free irrigation assessments. There is no adopted water efficiency goal for the city of Jacksonville.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Jacksonville has not yet established a goal or comprehensive strategy for energy efficiency in its municipal water service operations. JEA’s Buckman Wastewater Treatment Facility, however, does self-generate energy that is used on site. Buckman Wastewater treatment plant electric consumption is offset by a 800 kW generator fueled by biogas produced at the plant. Biogas produced by the sludge digestion process is used in place of a portion of the natural gas used to heat and dry the biosolids. In addition, updated controls installed in 2014 optimize the UV disinfection system, resulting in an energy reduction of 200 kWh.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The city’s stormwater fee funds the Jacksonville Stormwater Utility, which is responsible for maintaining and improving the city's stormwater system and for meeting the city's obligations to improve their natural waterways. Discounts are provided by the Jacksonville Stormwater Utility for property owners that provide stormwater-related facilities and/or services that ultimately benefit the city's stormwater system. In addition, the City of Jacksonville is currently investing in Low Impact Development (LID) projects at libraries, community centers and in neighborhoods. Completed projects include a bio-swale at the San Marco Library and a permeable parking lot at the Robert F. Kennedy Center.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although there is active cooperation between the electric and water utilities, the efforts are performed individually and supportively, while not jointly. Although KC Water has funded water efficiency rebates in the past through WaterWorks, we could not confirm if the utility still funds programs to help customers save water. KC Water has established a non-revenue water (NRW) goal to reduce commercial and actual NRW, or water loss from leakage, metering inaccuracies, unseen line losses and theft.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Wastewater Treatment Division of Kansas City is currently working to reduce energy usage by 1% per year and assure all new equipment is as energy efficient as reasonably possible, within the context of the overall lifecycle cost of the asset, consistent with the Green and Sustainable Procurement Policy. Although city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy on a regular basis, it does capture and reuse methane from anaerobic digesters to super-heat hot water boilers.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Kansas City began a pilot program called Middle Blue River Basin Green Solutions Pilot Project in 2012. The project is a part of Kansas City’s Overflow Control Program. Kansas City is invested in providing a healthy city with more sustainable infrastructure by reducing sewage and rainwater overflow. The pilot project took place in a neighborhood in south Kansas City. The result from this project has earned Kansas City the Envision Platinum Award from the Institute of Sustainable Infrastructure.

Kansas City’s consent decree with the EPA gives the city 25 years to develop systems that will capture and treat 88% of combined sewer overflows and eliminate sanitary sewer overflows during a five-year rain event. In response, the city developed an Overflow Control Plan and Program, a 25-year plan beginning in 2010. The plan outlines the implementation of green infrastructure projects and postpones the construction of huge underground rainwater detention systems for about 14 years. As of January 2017, over 75 projects were currently moving forward as part of the Plan, and three projects had been completed.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

All Knoxville City facilities have water saving devices in place. KUB promotes national water efficiency programs on website as well as offers energy saving tips, but as of yet, there are no funded water efficiency programs in place. Knoxville has also not set a goal for water efficiency.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

KUB has no official target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations.  KUB has installed energy retrofits such as a self-generation facility on the wastewater treatment plants.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In Knoxville, stormwater is managed through form based codes, a complete streets policy, and tax increment finance language that drives new low-impact development and green infrastructure.  The city has captured two TDEC green infrastructure grants to install innovative stormwater measures. General capital funds are dedicated to these activities on a project by project basis.

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

Southwest Gas and NV Energy collaborate with the Southern Nevada Water District to offer energy and water conservation tips to local business and residential customers as well as provide separate electric efficiency, gas efficiency and water efficiency programs. The Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) established a conservation goal of 199 GPCD (gallons per capita per day) by 2035. In order to meet this goal, the SNWA and Las Vegas Valley Water District use a four-pronged approach of tiered pricing, drought and water use restrictions, incentives for purchasing equipment like pool covers and green landscaping, and education and outreach. Since 2002 when the drought response plan was first developed, Southern Nevada has reduced its water demand from about 314 gallons per person per day to less than 220 GPCD in 2016.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Las Vegas Valley Water District is pursing energy efficiency initiatives in accordance with the city’s Sustainable Energy Strategy, but a specific energy efficiency goal for operations is not in place. The City of Las Vegas Water Pollution Control Facility digesters use methane capture and have 3.3 MW of solar power generated on site. In addition, power transmitted to the wastewater plant is received from the Colorado River Commission which receives power from Hoover Dam’s Hydropower Systems.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

As outlined in the City of Las Vegas Master Plan’s Conservation Element, the City of Las Vegas, the Las Vegas Valley Water District, the Regional Flood Control District, and The Southern Nevada Water Authority each encourage green infrastructure, such as bioswales, artificial turf, and xeriscaping on properties to manage stormwater for new and existing developments. A regional clean water team does exist, and most stormwater is designed to flow back into the Las Vegas Wash and wetlands to return to Lake Mead for a Return Flow Credit that counts towards Las Vegas’ water allocation of 320,000 acre feet per year.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The city of Lawrence has not established a goal for water efficiency through the city. However, the Utilities Department uses non-potable water for operational use at the wastewater treatment plant, and is working with Parks and Rec to use non-potable water for watering medians, trees, right-of-ways, etc. and making production changes at the water plants to decrease the amount of water used for process purposes.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The city has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. However, Lawrence will be identifying private sewer line infrastructure that is damaged and in need of replacement, and will be working with homeowners to replace those.  At the wastewater treatment plan, methane gas is captured from the anaerobic digesters and is used in place of natural gas to operate the sludge heaters and provide heat for the building.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Lawrence offers incentives for stormwater detention.  The property owner receives a 57% discount on their stormwater utility bill for detaining the 1% chance storm. No public funding is available for green infrastructure on public lands.

Last Updated: October 2013

Water Efficiency

LADWP’s Efficiency Solutions division administers both energy and water efficiency programs, such as the Home Energy Improvement Program which includes both water and energy efficiency measures. LADWP also has a master inter-utility agreement (MIUA) with SoCal Gas, which includes co-funding of the Energy Upgrade California Program. This includes measures that lead to reduced water use.

In 2014, the city established a goal to achieve 20% reduction in the city's fresh water use by 2017 and a 50% cut in the amount of imported water purchased by the Department of Water and Power by 2024 both below baseline year 2014. Additionally, the Sustainable City pLAn calls for 22.5% reduction of per capita consumption of water by 2025, and a 25% reduction of per capita consumption of water by 2035 below baseline year 2014. LADWP offers a number of free water conservation devices such as showerheads and aerators. Also, the LADWP Landscape Incentive Program pays customers to replace turf grass with drought-tolerant plants or mulch.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The city has a goal to improve energy efficiency at drinking water treatment and distribution facilities, although no specific targets are available. However, the Bureau of Sanitation has an energy group at the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment plant that focuses on tracking power use and implementing energy saving measures. In 2013, the LADWP Commission adopted an aggressive policy requiring the utility to achieve 15% energy savings through energy efficiency by 2020 below baseline year 2010. The Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation operates four treatment and water reclamation plants, two of which generate electricity from captured biogas. In addition, the Digester Gas Utilization Project (DGUP) is a cogeneration project nearing construction completion that will use Hyperion's digester gas as a renewable energy source to generate electricity and steam for use on site in plant operations.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Los Angeles is pursuing green infrastructure through the Enhanced Watershed Management Plans (EWMP) for the Upper Los Angeles River Watershed and Ballona Creek Watershed. The EWMP identifies current and future multi-benefit projects that will improve water quality, promote water conservation, enhance recreational opportunities, manage flood risk, improve local aesthetics, and support public education opportunities. Each EWMP includes water quality priorities, watershed control measures, reasonable assurance analysis, the scheduling of projects and the monitoring, assessment and adaptive management of projects.

The Department of Water and Power also has a Stormwater Capture Master Plan, which outlines strategies for the next 20 years to implement stormwater and watershed management programs, projects, and policies in the City of Los Angeles. In 2009, the City of Los Angeles adopted the Water Quality Compliance Master Plan, a 20-year strategy for clean stormwater and urban runoff to reduce the pollution flowing into local rivers, creeks, lakes and beaches. In addition, the City’s Stormwater Pollution Abatement Charge generates $28 million annually for the city’s stormwater management program and services. These funds pay for flood control projects and system maintenance and upgrades, and pollution abatement programs and projects.

Last Updated: February 2017

Water Efficiency

The Louisville Water Company has not established any water efficiency programs, policies, or goals.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

At this point, the City of Louisville has not established a goal or programs for energy efficiency through the city’s water service operation system. However, The Louisville Water Company and the Louisville Metropolitan Sewer District are both participating in the Effective Utility Management program that was developed by the Water Research Foundation, Water Environment Federation, EPA and others to set metrics for utilities to become more efficient and sustainable operationally. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Louisville’s Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) offers monetary incentives for green infrastructure projects on private property based on the amount of rainwater the installation manages on-site. The Louisville’s Office of Sustainability will match MSD’s incentive $1 for $1 up to $10,000 for project receiving less than $50,000 from MSD. Projects that receive up to $75,000 are considered on a case-by-case basis. The 2017 budget includes funds for a more robust green roof incentive program.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Madison Water Utility has established the goal to reduce per capita water consumption by 20% by 2020. To reach this goal, the utility offers rebates to residential customers who replace one inefficient toilet with an EPA WaterSense-rated High Efficiency Toilet (HET). The Madison Water Utility is installing smart water meters. When the smart metering is complete, the utility is planning on pursuing a water conservation rate structure. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Though Madison has not yet established a target for reducing energy usage in municipal water services operations, The Madison Water Utility is working with University of Wisconsin on pumping strategies to lower energy use - based on intensity of pumping and the height the water needs to be moved. The Water utility upgraded customer water meters to a wireless technology network that saves energy by eliminating trips to read meters. The Madison wastewater treatment plant captures and reuses heat on-site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Stormwater Commission has established numerous requirements for newly developed areas for stormwater management such as new parking lots and bioswales. Madison budgeted $80,000 annually to meet goal of installing 1,000 rain gardens on public and private land. 

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

While the MLGW programs focus on energy efficiency, water efficiency is included in My Account analytics and self-audits, low-income repairs, and customer communications to help preserve and protect the aquifer system. The Energy Education webpage includes information on both energy and water efficiency. The City of Memphis does not have a water efficiency goal.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

In 2013, the City of Memphis’s two wastewater treatment plants enrolled in the TVA-EnerNOC Demand Response Program. Under this program, the city receives recurring payments from TVA in return for agreeing to reduce electricity consumption in response to abnormally high electricity demand. Combined the plants reduce consumption by 9,000 kW and receive an annual payment of roughly $154,000 for participating. Both of the city’s wastewater treatment facilities supply biogas to the water utility for use on-site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Stormwater Management Program has established numerous requirements for newly developed areas for stormwater management such as new parking lots and bioswales. Revenue generated from the stormwater fee is also used for public projects that incorporate low impact development (LID) and green infrastructure. The Mid-South Regional Greenprint Plan is the regional vision for green infrastructure in terms of greenways and bicycle trails.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of Miami has an online a water efficiency pledge which includes energy efficiency measures, and they also offer high efficiency rebates for water fixtures. In 2006, the Miami-Dade County Board of County Commissioners adopted the Miami-Dade Water-Use Efficiency Plan through city resolution, with a goal of reducing water consumption by 1.5 million gallons per day by 2015 from a 2007 baseline. As a part of the implementation, the plan administered a variety of customer programs including rebates and free water-saving measures including shower heads, toilets, and landscape irrigation. The goal of the plan was exceeded in year 2015, and it’s estimated that the city will be able to save more than 14.25 million gallons of water per day by 2017.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

At this point, the City of Miami has not established a goal or programs for energy efficiency through the municipal water service operation system. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There is no master plan or funding in place to implement green stormwater infrastructure. Stormwater utility fees are assigned to all developed residential and non-residential properties and are determined as a function of equivalent residential units for residential properties and by determining the impervious area for non-residential properties.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Focus on Energy distributes low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators, funded by a surcharge on utility bills. There are no water efficiency goals or full programs in place for the City of Milwaukee.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

MMSD’s Vision 2035 contains climate change mitigation and adaption strategies with an emphasis on energy efficiency, with the goal of being energy self-sufficient by 2035. The regional wastewater treatment plant uses landfill gas to generate energy onsite.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) has a Regional Green Infrastructure Plan and the City has a Green Streets Stormwater Management Plan. The Regional Green Infrastructure Plan commits the city to capturing the first half-inch of rain falling within the municipality by 2035. Milwaukee's stormwater fee allows customers to receive reductions for installing green infrastructure. There is also funding in place for green infrastructure on public property, including green roofs and rain gardens on municipal properties.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

CenterPoint Energy and the City of Minneapolis have partnered to promote CenterPoint Energy's offering of low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators through city water utility bill inserts. Residential water use is included in the Home Energy Squad Program, which the city partially funds, including a water conservation component that includes replacing shower and sink aerators.

The City’s Waterworks is focusing their water efficiency efforts on non-revenue water at a system level using the American Water Works Association’s Water Audit Software and methodology. Their goal is reducing the unaccounted for water portion of the non-revenue water to 10% or less.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Minneapolis’s Water Works (a city water park) is included in the 1.5% annual goal to reduce energy use in city facilities. Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (Metro) came very close to meeting its 2015 energy goal of reducing energy purchases by 25% from 2006 levels. After reaching 23% reductions, a new goal was set to further reduce energy purchases by 10% between 2015 and 2020. Specific strategies to meet the goals include: optimizing aeration processes, installing the Blue Lake wastewater treatment plant digester, installing the non-condensing steam turbine at the Metro wastewater treatment plant, and the replacement of the return activated sludge/waste activated sludge pump drives at Metro.

Metro Plant currently uses incinerators to burn the biosolids removed from the treated water to create energy for the operations of the plant. At the Blue Lake wastewater treatment plant, methane biogas recovered from the digester facility replaces 9 million BTU/hour of natural gas that powers the solids facility.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City is midway through an effort to develop water quality and hydraulic models of the 600 mile stormwater system. Upon completion of modeling work in late 2017, the City will begin stormwater projects to mitigate flood risks and improve water quality. In the meantime, the City is partnering with watershed organizations and others on pilot projects. Evaluation of and investments in green infrastructure are components of both the short and long term ongoing work.

The costs of providing stormwater management are listed as a separate line item on the city’s utility bills. The city has a stormwater utility credit that can be applied for if a project demonstrates the ability to handle a 10 or 100-year rain event on-site.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Metro Water Services has not established any water efficiency programs, policies, or goals. The City of Nashville does have a water loss strategy, which involves replacing old water mains, reducing leakage rates, quick and timely leak repair, and a MeterSense Meter Data Management System that evaluates water losses. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Nashville has established an energy management strategy aimed at increasing energy efficiency throughout the city’s water service operation system. This strategy is focused at analyzing and optimizing energy usage in treatment plants and in watershed management operations. Nashville’s wastewater treatment plant uses biogas captured from the treatment process to generate electricity onsite

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Under the Green Infrastructure Master Plan, the city provides guidelines and recommendations for green infrastructure projects, such as rain gardens, green roofs, and other stormwater control measures. The plan also outlines several green infrastructure projects to be included in the city’s budget for capital improvement.  

The Nashville Stormwater Management Manual, updated in 2016, outlines policies for stormwater management, including green infrastructure in new construction. The city also provides a Low Impact Development Manual to encourage site design approaches that utilize green infrastructure to meet a development site’s post development stormwater runoff water quality requirements. 

Nashville’s Metro Government has instituted several policies and programs to mitigate stormwater pollution, promote green infrastructure development and reduce sewerage overflow. Most significantly, Mayor Dean led the passage of legislation in 2009 that has helped fund $500 million in capital projects for Nashville’s water and sewer systems and more than $50 million in stormwater capital projects.

Last Updated: February 2017

Water Efficiency

The Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans does not haev a water efficiency goal in place, but they are in the process of upgrading many of its leakiest pipes to address system water loss.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. There are not currently any programs in place for energy efficiency in water operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There are currently no policies, programs, funding, or incentive structures in place to encourage green infrastructure for stormwater management on private properties. However, as of January 2017, there is an RFP out for projects totaling $2.5 million over 5 years that will focus on green infrastructure projects with stormwater elements included. New Orleans adopted a new comprehensive zoning ordinance which has provisions and requirements related to stormwater management on private properties.

Public Funding is not in place for green stormwater infrastructure on public property, but there are sustainable features, including rain gardens and bioswales, incorporated into select municipal government projects.

Last Updated: February 2017

Water Efficiency

While the City of New York, which is a municipal water utility, does not jointly administer energy and water efficiency programs with private energy utilities, the energy utilities themselves offer water efficiency programs as a way to reduce both water and energy usage. Consolidated Edison provides energy-efficient and low-flow devices through their energy efficiency programs. National Grid has a Commercial Direct Install Program, which offers commercial customers no-cost installation of high-efficiency water and energy savings measures.

In 2014, NYC Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) released the Water Demand Management Plan, a citywide program targeting a 5% overall reduction in water consumption citywide by year 2021. The plan consists of multiple strategies and more than 21 initiatives to achieve a target reduction of approximately 50 million gallons per day.

The Municipal Water Efficiency Program provides funding for water conservation and water efficiency projects in city-owned facilities. Under this program, DEP has identified opportunities for water savings in more than 2,000 city properties, with estimated water savings of over 9 million gallons of water per day by the end of the program. DEP has retrofitted 370 of 400 spray showers in City parks and installed high-efficiency fixtures in 240 schools to date; retrofits for 500 schools are planned.  The porcelain from the schools is being recycled for an oyster bed project in Jamaica Bay as well as green infrastructure bioswales. DEP has also had success with its Water Challenge to waste water treatment plants, achieving 300,000 gallons per day in savings among 3 plants in 2015.

Under the Residential Water Efficiency Program, DEP launched a two year Toilet Replacement Program in 2014. Phase I of the program offers $125 vouchers for qualified multifamily property owners who replace outdated toilets with high-efficiency models. Approximately 1,300 vouchers for approximately 14,200 toilets in total have been requested thus far. 

The Non-Residential Water Efficiency Program promotes conservation in commercial and non-residential buildings through partnerships with the private sector. In the spring of 2013, DEP and the Mayor’s Office launched a water efficiency program called the New York City Water Challenge to Hotels, where eleven of the city’s premier hotels were challenged to reduce their consumption by 5% below 2012 levels. Similar programs targeting restaurants in 2015, and hospitals in 2016 are yielding meaningful water savings.

Additional DEP strategies under the Water Demand Management Program include Water Distribution System Optimization, Water Supply Shortage Management, and an Upstate Water Conservation Program. Most recently, DEP is developing a demand management program with our wholesale upstate customers. The first phase of this program is the provision of consulting services to assist upstate customers in developing demand management plans; the second phase will be the implementation of such plans. Demand management plans have been developed for eight upstate customers: The Village of Ossining, the Village of Tarrytown, Westchester Joint Water Works, the City of Mt. Vernon, the Village of Scarsdale, the Town of New Windsor, the Town of Greenburgh, and SUEZ Water Westchester (formerly United Water Westchester) that serves New Rochelle and other communities in lower Westchester.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

DEP completed energy audits at all 14 in-city wastewater treatment plants and has accepted over 130 energy conservation measures (ECMs) that have the potential to reduce energy use by 2.9 MMBTU per year. While there is no set annual “target” for energy efficiency, the Agency is currently working on an integration study to align those ECMs with State of Good Repair (SOGR) plans and projects so that ECMs are completed concurrently with ongoing, necessary maintenance and repair work at the 14 in-city plants. Additionally, DEP has a target to beneficially use 60% its anaerobic digester gas for thermal and/or electric energy by 2017. DEP currently produces over 3.5 billion cubic feet of anaerobic digester gas (ADG) per year, approximately 60% of which is made of methane. DEP beneficially uses approximately 40% of the produced anaerobic digester gas (ADG). These efforts support the reduction target set by PlaNYC, where city government buildings are to reduce their GHG emissions by 30% by 2017 from a 2005 baseline. Internally, DEP has implemented a Standard Operating Procedure to govern energy conservation and GHG reduction design considerations during the project design lifecycle, from the selection of the designer to commissioning of the installed equipment. Energy design guidelines for unit processes or equipment accompany the SOP and provide guidance on how to increase energy efficiency with any new facility construction or reconstruction projects.

At the Owl’s Head WWTP, there are three 1.6 MW dual fuel engines to generate electricity at the plant which offset approximately 40% of the plant’s electric needs. Moreover, The Coney Island WWTP has four 1.6 MW engine generators. These cogeneration units have been in service for over 30 years. The plant is generating over 80% of total electric power from these engines and utilizes nearly 100% digester gas production at plant. Looking ahead, DEP is designing a 16 MW cogeneration system at the North River WWTP which will be operated at an average of 10 MW and will use ADG and utility natural gas. The system, which will be in operation by 2020, will meet the plant’s base electrical demand and all thermal heating needs.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The DEP 2015 Green Infrastructure Annual Report states that NYC committed a total of $1.5 billion to installing Green Infrastructure throughout the next 20 years, from 2010 to 2030. In 2015, the DEP also began a Research and Development Program (R&D) that will build on existing monitoring and substantially expand DEP’s ability to collect new data on green infrastructure performance.

The city has a sustainable stormwater management plan that includes 30 pilot projects to test promising source control technologies. Changes to city building codes and zoning since the launch of PlaNYC include zoning amendments initiated by the Department of City Planning, requiring new commercial parking lots to include perimeter and interior green infrastructure, prohibiting buildings in lower-density districts from having paved yards, and requiring new developments city-wide to include street trees and, in lower-density areas, include sidewalk planting strips.

In 2013, DEP worked the Department of Buildings and other city agencies to extend the 2008 New York City Green Roof Tax Abatement—with some modifications—for an additional five years. This provides a one-year tax abatement, or tax relief, of $4.50 per square foot (up to $100,000 or the building's tax liability, whichever is less) to property owners that install green roofs.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

No water savings targets have been set by the city of Oakland. Nevertheless, the regional water utility, East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), funds a range of water efficiency programs. Additionally, The electric and water utility jointly administer a rebate program for the purchase of energy-efficient clothes washers.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

EMBUD has not set an energy efficiency target for its operations. However, the utility does self-generate by producing methane used for anaerobic digesters.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Oakland is a partner of the County of Alameda’s Clean Water Program, which,  provides funding for community-based projects aimed at stormwater pollution prevention, among other things. Additionally, Oakland’s 2025 Master Plan incorporates strategies to manage stormwater runoff. 

Updated: April 2017

Water Efficiency

Oklahoma City’s water and energy utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. In 2013, Oklahoma City’s Department of Utilities implemented a Progressive Water Conservation Program. However, they have not established any water efficiency goals. They do offer a number of water-saving rebates such as low-flow fixtures and dual-flush toilets.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Oklahoma City’s Department of Utilities has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. However, they do implement a mandatory odd/even day watering program which effectively cuts daily peak customer water demand, reducing electrical usage. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Oklahoma City recently updated its zoning code to promote and support urban agriculture and green infrastructure. The modified ordinance provides clarification for activities such as rainwater harvesting, managing stormwater runoff, and implementing Low-Impact Development (LID). However, there are no funding or incentive structures in place to encourage green infrastructure and stormwater management.

In June 2016, the US EPA announced a partnership with Oklahoma City to design strategies for the Greening America’s Communities program, which will focus on flood control projects.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) provides water saving solutions and rebate programs for residential and commercial buildings that include both water and energy efficiency measures. Although City of Orlando has not established a water-saving target, the City has developed a Water Resource Strategy to address water conservation concerns.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

In 2015, the Orlando Utility Commission set a Clean Energy Strategy goal of 20% of retail sales from renewables and energy efficiency by 2020. This target will require significant investment in both landfill gas and solar generation. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Orlando requires developers to create stormwater retention ponds to minimize impacts of heavy rainfall. As stated in the Green Works Community Action Plan, the City has a goal to increase the city-wide tree canopy by 40% (baseline year 2012). Other green infrastructure projects including green roofs, permeable pavements, and water harvesting are being explored, but there are no specific goals for them in a formal plan at present

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Park City Water Department has set a goal to reduce its per capita water consumption by 25% by 2050 from a 2000 baseline. In order to meet this goal, the water utility offers its customers Free Water Checks - water usage tests for a home's or business's irrigation system. Rebates are also available for smart controllers and efficient irrigation systems. In 2014, the Park City Water Department launched WaterSmart, providing individualized feedback to users on their water consumption and has seen a 5% decrease in water consumption to date. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Park City's Water department has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. However, the department has integrated a number of efficiency measures into the system and explores energy impacts (and potential efficiency upgrades) as part of project construction planning.  The department also intends on integrating micro-hydro turbines into the system for electricity generation in 2014, though there are not self-generation facilities incorporated into the Park City wastewater treatment facilities just yet.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City has instituted a Storm Water Quality Credit Program to raise funds through storm sewer fees for non-residential properties that use Landscaping, Water quality, underground detention measures. Discounted rates are subject to approval by City Engineer and are based on reduction in peak discharge and volume of stormwater discharged to city facilities and water quality loading reductions. Park City does not currently offer public funding for green stormwater infrastructure on public property.

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

The city of Philadelphia does not have joint water and energy efficiency programs. To help low-income water customers reduce water waste, the Water Department runs the Water Conservation Assistance Program, which brings efficiency through repairs to plumbing and installation of water conservation devices. Philadelphia has not yet set a water efficiency target

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. However, it is currently developing a utility-wide strategic energy plan which is likely to contain energy efficiency goals. PWD established an agreement with Ameresco to design, build, and maintain an innovative wastewater biogas-to-energy facility at the Northeast water pollution control plant. The project, completed in 2013, uses biogas from the wastewater digesters to generate thermal energy and 5.6 MW of electricity for on-site use.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Philadelphia’s Green City Clean Waters plan focuses on reducing stormwater pollution entering the combined sewer system through the use of green infrastructure. As of June 2016, the plan achieved 837.7 greened acres in 441 green infrastructure sites, which keeps more than 1.5 billion gallons of polluted water out of the rivers per year. The plan aims for Philadelphia Water to achieve 2,148 greened acres by 2021, which will keep 2 billion gallons of polluted water out of the rivers per year.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The city of Phoenix is a major contributor to the Water Use It Wisely campaign, an educational campaign aimed at increasing water efficiency across Phoenix. As a result, water use per capita has dropped 34% since 1996 and 6% in the last two years. The city also retrofits 200-250 income-qualified homes with high-efficiency fixtures and toilets. Currently, the energy and water utilities do not offer joint efficiency programs to residential or commercial customers. Additionally, the City has set nonrevenue water-saving goals at their water department, which are aimed at keeping annual water losses below 10%.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Water Services Department (WSD) partners with local electric service providers to implement energy conservation measures at its facilities. To date, energy conservation measures from these programs have saved 5.8 million kWh annually. The WSD has joined the Department of Energy’s Better Plans Program, setting a goal to reduce energy intensity (KWh/million gallons) by 25% over a 10-year period, baseline year 2015. It is also participating in the DOE’s Wastewater Infrastructure Accelerator through the Better Buildings Program. Additionally, the Water Services Department Business Plan establishes energy intensity metrics for both its water and wastewater operations. To meet them, an aggressive program is being implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions through a holistic approach that includes new technologies, alternative energy resources, and innovative management techniques.

Digester gas is used at the 91st Avenue Wastewater Treatment Facility, in boilers to maintain digester temperatures, offsetting its thermal load by 68,000 MMBtu per year. Additionally, a large Energy Services Company (ESCO) is under contract to build and operate a facility recovery and clean-up digester gas that is currently being flared. The project had a ground breaking ceremony in the fall of 2016, with anticipated completion by December 2017. When operational, the facility will provide an annual energy offset of approximately 640,000 MMBtu, reducing carbon emissions by nearly 45,000 tons/year, which is the equivalent of taking over 70,000 cars off the road or planting over 87,000 acres of trees every year.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The 2013 update to Phoenix’s Stormwater Management Plan outlines policies for stormwater management, including green infrastructure in new construction. The City of Phoenix requires all new developments to manage stormwater on-site for the 100-year, 2-hour rain event. New developments are also required to comply. Further, the city offers certification to a voluntary Green Construction Code for private buildings. Development of Green infrastructure is encouraged on capital improvement projects through a policy to design city buildings to LEED standards.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Pittsburgh’s energy and water utilities do not run any joint efficiency programs. Even though there are no established water efficiency goals, PWSA supports two fulltime leak detection crews that employ electronic correlators and acoustic sound sensors to pinpoint leaks on both utility- and customer-owned water lines.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA) has a goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 2003 levels by 2023. Old pump motors are being upgraded to more efficient equipment. ALCOSAN, the county sewer authority, uses steam generated from incineration of the sludge to heat buildings and to generate electricity.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

PWSA’s Wet Weather Plan aims to improve water quality affected by stormwater runoff through green infrastructure. The plan proposes using green infrastructure and integrated watershed management to assist in the control of combined sewer overflows. The 3 Rivers Wet Weather nonprofit also assists in addressing the wet weather overflow problem by working with multiple stakeholders to move policies forward.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although water and energy efficiency programs are not offered jointly, the city does offer demand-side programs for customers to reduce their water usage. The Portland Water Bureau offers free water efficiency kits to residential customers as well as toilet and irrigation rebates and incentives. The Bureau offers many programs for commercial customers including the multifamily toilet replacement program, Business Industry and Government (BIG) technical assistance program. The Water Bureau of Portland has not established a specific goal for water savings. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City's Environmental Services Wastewater Group has set a target of 1% annual reduction in energy use compared with FY2013-14. To identify and implement energy efficiency projects, the Wastewater Group is actively involved in the Energy Trust of Oregon's Industrial Energy Initiative, which provides technical assistance and financial incentives to promote efficiency projects at the wastewater treatment plant. The City of Portland’s Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant captures methane to generate heat and power in a 1.7 MW cogeneration system. In FY 2015-16, the combined heat and power (CHP) system generated 10.6 million kWh of electricity and 3.9 MMtherms of natural gas.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Portland’s Stormwater Management Manual provides policy and design requirements for stormwater management throughout Portland, and it also contains extensive green infrastructure design requirements and incentives. The requirements in the manual apply to all development, redevelopment, and improvement projects within Portland. Portland also has a full suite of programs focused on investing in green infrastructure to manage stormwater runoff. Current programs include the Green Streets Program, the % for Green funding program, Green Street Steward program, Ecoroof Program, Innovative Wet Weather program, and the Clean River Rewards rebate program. The Portland Watershed Management Plan ends in 2017, and is supported by Portland’s Grey to Green initiative, which is a five-year and $55 million commitment.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Although Providence’s water and energy utilities not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs, the Providence Water Supply Board offers water efficiency kits for residential customers and efficiency audits for commercial and industrial customers. In accordance with R.I. General Laws §46-15.3-5.1 (c) and §46-15.8-5, the Water Supply Board established a residential average annual water use target of 65 gallons per capita per day.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Providence has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. There are no programs or policies in place to increase energy efficiency through the Providence Water Supply Board’s operations.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Providence is currently developing a plan to be released in 2017 that will take a comprehensive approach to watershed management and explicitly call for the widespread adoption and implementation of green infrastructure. In 2010, Providence adopted the state's Stormwater Design and Installation Manual that requires low impact development (LID) strategies.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department offers independent water efficiency programs for customers to reduce their water usage. They offer numerous programs, such as a Water Conservation Kit at no cost and run a Showerhead Swap Out Program to promote the use of high efficiency showerheads. The City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department implements water-efficient incentive programs, public education on water conservation issues, and tiered residential water rates. These efforts have resulted in a steady decline in gallons per capita consumed per day (gpcd.) The long term goal is to maintain a gpcd value of 90 or below through 2060.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

At this point, Raleigh’s Public Utilities Department has not established a specific goal for energy efficiency through municipal water operations. However, the City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department has implemented several energy efficiency and conservation strategies. These efforts include the use of power management software to avoid running water plant raw water pumps during peak energy hours, installation of two solar arrays, consisting of 250 kW and 1.3 MW capacities, and the conversion from aerobic to anaerobic digestion at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy. Nevertheless, the City of Raleigh is also in the design phase for the development of an anaerobic digestion facility with thermal hydrolysis and combined heat and power facilities.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Raleigh does not have a discrete planning document in place with the goal of increasing investment in green infrastructure. The City does, however, have a Green Infrastructure/Low Impact Development Work Plan that is in the process of being implemented with a goal of increasing the use of green infrastructure and low-impact development techniques in new development and redevelopment within the City. The Formal driving force behind this effort is the City’s Strategic Plan, under the Growth and Natural Resources section.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Richmond is an EPA Water Sense Partner, but the city does not fund water efficiency programs and a water savings target has not been established. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

DPU has a target to reduce energy usage from its utility operations by 1% annually. There is not currently any self-generation facilities installed in wastewater treatment plants in Richmond.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The DPU is currently leading the city’s multi-year effort to develop an Integrated Watershed Management Plan. The plan is still in development and investments in green infrastructure are being considered as part of the planning process.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Riverside Public Utilities serves both electricity and water to its customers, and it administers both water and energy efficiency programs. The city offers rebates for water-efficient appliances, drought tolerant landscaping and free sprinkler nozzles for both residential and commercial customers. Riverside has a goal to reduce its per-capita potable water usage by 20% by 2020, compared to a 2010 baseline. In 2008, the city approved the Riverside Recycle Water Project, which will use highly treated wastewater rather than high-quality potable water to serve the agricultural and irrigation needs throughout the city.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

At this time, the City of Riverside has not established a goal for energy efficiency across municipal water service operations. The wastewater division of the Riverside Public Works Department self-generates electricity by capturing methane generated from the wastewater treatment plant’s anaerobic digesters. Methane is currently burned in internal combustion engines for power generation. Each engine drives a 1.1 MW generator. Waste heat is captured in an onsite heat loop which is used for process heat for the anaerobic digesters and for an onsite chiller which cools the administration and laboratory building. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

To improve water quality, the city implements many measures, including stormwater pollution management and urban runoff management. The city’s efforts are guided, in part, by federal and state regulations including the Clean Water Act and the National Pollution Elimination System (NPDES) program. One way the city is working to improve water quality is by reducing the pollution and water flowing from the city’s storm drain system towards the Santa Ana River. In 2008, the city approved the Riverside Recycle Water Project, which will use highly treated wastewater rather than high-quality potable water to serve the agricultural and irrigation needs throughout the city.

The 2010 Santa Ana River MS4 Permit (Permit) requires that a Water Quality Management Plan (WQMP) be prepared for all projects within the City which meet certain categories/thresholds and for which a final map or permit for discretionary approval is sought from the City. These requirements are also codified in the City’s Municipal Code.

The WQCP and Permit mandate a Low Impact Development (LID) approach to stormwater treatment and management of runoff from Priority Development Projects. LID comprises a set of technologically feasible and cost-effective approaches to stormwater management and land development. A LID approach is consistent with green infrastructure in that it includes, among others, technologies such as onsite infiltration, harvest and reuse, and permeable pavement.

Funding is available for various green/stormwater infrastructure projects. These funds are exclusively available for city projects necessary to comply with Municipal Separate Storm Sewer (MS4) Permit and the State Pathogen Total Maximum Daily Load adopted for the Middle Santa Ana River.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Sacramento provides rebates for water-efficient sprinkler systems, toilets, and clothes washers, and employs Water Wise conservation specialists to identify home and business water savings opportunities. Additionally, the Department of Utilities is in the process of upgrading the city’s meters to smart water meters. The City of Sacramento has set a goal to achieve a 20% reduction in per capita water consumption by the year 2020 below 2005 levels.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

At this point, SRCSD has not established a goal for energy efficiency through municipal water operations. However, SRCSD, in partnership with Carson Energy, operates an on-site cogeneration plant at the Sacramento regional wastewater treatment plant in Elk Grove. The cogeneration plant is partly fueled by the biogas produced by the treatment plant’s digesters.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Sacramento has developed the Stormwater Quality Design Manual for use in new construction projects. However, there are no funding or incentive structures in place to encourage green infrastructure and stormwater management.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The Department of Public Utilities’ 2009 Water Conservation Plan set a goal to reduce per capita water use 25% from 2000 levels by the year 2050. In order to meet this goal, the water utility offers its customers Free Water Checks, water usage tests for a home's or business's irrigation system. Rebates are also available for water efficiency projects.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

We could not confirm if the Department of Public Utilities has established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. Salt Lake City’s wastewater treatment plant uses biogas captured from the treatment process to generate electricity onsite. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

We could not confirm if there is a formal plan in place to implement green stormwater infrastructure and stormwater management on public properties.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of San Antonio offers WaterSaver rebates, free high-efficiency toilets and fixtures, large-scale retrofit rebates for water system upgrades, irrigation design rebates, and drought restrictions. The City of San Antonio has a goal to reduce water usage to 116 gallons per person per day by 2020, which is a reduction of 0.06%, and to also use 16,500 acre-ft of water overall per year by 2020.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

SAWS has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for municipal water operations. However, the water system tracks the energy savings from its efficiency initiatives, which include using high-efficiency pumps and motors to distribute water, generating biogas at its treatment facility, and performing lighting upgrades. SAWS does have a 20-year contract with AMERESCO to sell biogas, although it does not use the gas for self-generation.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In January 2016, the City of San Antonio published a Storm Water Design Criteria Manual provide guidance and adequate measures for the retention, detention, and distribution of stormwater in a manner that minimizes the possibility of adverse impacts on both water quantity and water quality during development. The City’s Development Services Department provides incentives in the form of bonus credits/offsets and reduction of development fees. The City’s Transportation & Capital Improvements Department has allocated funding to several green infrastructure projects including detention ponds and rainwater harvesting systems.

Additionally, the San Antonio River Authority administers the Watershed Wise Rebate Program. This program rebates construction of on-site stormwater best management practices (BMPs) to either new construction or retrofitting on property. The rebate program is available in Bexar, Wilson, Karnes, and Goliad counties. BMPs must be designed using San Antonio River Basin Low Impact Development Technical Guidance Manual.

Last Updated: February 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of San Diego’s Department of Water Utilities offers water use calculators for household and landscape use. There are also rebate programs available for micro irrigation, turf removal, and rain barrels. The City of San Diego is also a member of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA), which has been partnering with SDG&E for more than twenty years on administering water efficiency programs, such as low-flow showerheads, small business water efficiency equipment, leak loss detection, and education and outreach.

The City of San Diego’s Climate Action Plan has several water savings targets and long-term strategies to reach those targets. One target is to reduce daily per capita water consumption by 4 gallons by 2020 and 9 gallons by 2035 below 2010 levels. Action 1.3 of the Climate Action Plan directs the City to support water rate structures that provide pricing signals that encourage water conservation and reuse. Action 1.4 directs the City to present to City Council for considerations a Water Conservation and Disclosure Ordinance. The core strategy is to implement an Outdoor Landscaping Ordinance that requires use of weather-based irrigation controllers.

Supporting strategies to meet these targets are to record the annual volume percentage of recycled water used and planned to be introduced through 2035 and pursue additional financial resources and incentives for implementing energy and water efficiency measures identified by the conservation and ordinances, and to promote the expansion of greywater systems.

The City is also launching Pure Water San Diego, a phased, multi-year program that will provide one-third of San Diego's water supply locally by 2035. The Pure Water Program will use proven water purification technology to clean recycled water to produce safe, high-quality drinking water. The program offers a cost-effective investment for San Diego's water needs and will provide a reliable, sustainable water supply.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of San Diego’s Climate Action Plan encompasses both local water and wastewater utilities’ operations and include targets to reduce energy consumption at municipal facilities by 15% by 2020 and an additional 25% by 2035 below 2010 levels. Strategies to reach these targets include implementing a Smart Energy Management & Monitoring System for facilities to monitor and track energy consumption and using those results to identify opportunities for great efficiency and demand response along with pursuing LEED for Existing Buildings: Operation and Maintenance Certification for municipal facilities.

Since 2000, the Public Utilities Department has maintained a California Energy Commission-trained Energy Audit Team. Nearly all of the Department's major facilities have energy audit reports. The Department has invested an average of $400,000 per year in energy efficiency projects which have upgraded almost all of its emergency generators, department-owned administration buildings, as well as many of its largest pump stations and wastewater treatment plants. Projects have included lighting re-lamping and control, air conditioning system improvements, and process improvements.

The City of San Diego’s Wastewater Branch has a multiple self-generating facilities and projects. The City also has a goal to capture 98% wastewater treatment gases by 2035. At the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant, methane gas is captured to fuel three generators for a total capacity of 5.7 MW. The system also produces heat which is used to heat the plant’s digesters. Methane capture is also utilized on two other sites, the Metro Bio solids Center (MBC) and the North City Water Reclamation Plant (NCWRP). The MBC has a cogeneration capacity of 6.4 MW and the NCWRP has a cogeneration capacity of 3.8 MW. The Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant has an adjacent 1.35 MW hydroelectric plant that captures the energy of the treated wastewater discharge as it flows down a 90 foot-drop from the plant to the ocean outfall.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of San Diego’s Storm Water Division has recently updated its Storm Water Standards Manual, which contains best practices in green infrastructure. The City has funding available for green infrastructure as required by the state. The City has already integrated low-impact development stormwater best management practices into some capital improvement projects. However, private projects are required to develop and implement storm water best management practices as part of the permitting process.

Last Updated: February 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of San Francisco and PG&E do not offer joint water and energy efficiency programs, yet the city does have water-saving rebates independent of the energy utility. The City has updated codes requiring water-efficient fixtures/systems such as toilets, irrigation systems, and shower heads. Rebates are offered for high-efficiency washers and low-flow toilets, as well as free water saving kits. The City’s water conservation program was expanded to offer custom rebates based on projected savings as well as fixed rebates for common measures, similar to its energy efficiency programs. Additionally, the City provides a rebate for residences building a graywater recycling system on-site. San Francisco has a goal of saving 5 million gallons of water per day (1,500 million gallons per year) through conservation, by 2018 and 6 million gallons per day by 2035.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Energy efficiency projects have been completed at 11 water and wastewater facilities, with additional efficiency improvements planned as part of ongoing system renewal work. For example, through the Sewer System Improvement Program, the Southeast Treatment Plant is undergoing operational improvements and upgrades that will include increased energy efficiency and resource recovery.

The SFPUC has installed large electric cogeneration plants that utilize digester gas at two of its wastewater treatment plants, Southeast and Oceanside. Though no energy-savings target has been set, these systems generate 2 MW and 1 MW at peak, respectively. The electricity generated is used on-site. The SFPUC has also installed six different solar photovoltaic projects at its facilities, including a 5 MW solar project at Sunset Reservoir.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Phase One of the Sewer System Improvement Program (SSIP) will construct, monitor and evaluate eight green infrastructure projects to manage stormwater before it enters the combined sewer system in each of San Francisco's eight urban watersheds. As of September 2016, 4 projects were in pre-planning, 42 in planning or design, 4 in bid and award, 10 in construction, and 10 completed.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The San Jose Municipal Water System offers free water fixtures for its San Jose customers, including showerheads and kitchen and bathroom faucet aerators, but does not coordinate programs with PG&E.

In April 2015, the San Jose City Council set a mandated 30% water conservation target, which stayed in effect until July 2016. As the water supply was replenished, San Jose City Council declared a 20% water conservation target in July 2016, which will stay in effect until January 31, 2017. San Jose residents and businesses reached a 28% water conservation level between August 2015 and August 2016. This is slightly under the City’s 30% water conservation target but above the state’s target of 25%. All conservation targets are measured against the baseline year of 2013. 

With the reduction in the target on July 1, water use has increased; however, San Jose Municipal Water System continues to implement its enhanced water conservation outreach efforts. San Jose’s General Plan also outlines specific water savings targets, which include reducing citywide per capita water consumption by 25% by 2040 below 2010 levels, and achieving 50 million gallons per day of water conservation savings in San Jose, by reducing water use and increasing water-use efficiency by 2040.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Although there is not an energy efficiency goal established for municipal water service operations, the wastewater utility has implemented a number of energy efficiency measures, including installing more efficient fine bubble diffusers in its aeration tanks, as well as practicing pulsed, or episodic aeration, both of which significantly reduce energy demands for the aeration process. The wastewater utility has also installed LED streetlights throughout its 170-acre campus, and it continues to evaluate additional energy conservation measures. In addition, the wastewater utility is undergoing a $1.4 billion, 10-year Capital Improvement Program (CIP). The CIP has plans to invest in energy efficiency projects including $36.4 million aeration tanks rehabilitation and blower improvement projects which will reduce up to 40% of kWh and $1 million annually in secondary treatment once these projects are completed. The wastewater utility self-generates approximately half its energy supply through the capture and use of digester gas.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Municipal Regional Stormwater NPDES permit requires Bay Area cities to complete a Green Infrastructure (GI) Plan by September 2019. As of January 2017, San Jose has begun coordination, outreach, and education for its green infrastructure framework. The permit also requires low impact stormwater treatment measures for all public and private developments, which are inclusive of green infrastructure, as well as a pilot Green Streets Project. Additionally, San Jose's urban runoff management policy requires developers to demonstrate compliance with performance standards, which include tree planting as green infrastructure, early in the planning process. Further, San Jose is also installing trash capture systems. These systems connect directly to the storm drain system to capture trash and debris. Nine systems were installed in FY 2011-12, nine more are in construction, totaling eighteen systems covering 3,576 acres.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

To help customers reduce water use, the Saving Water Partnership (SWP)—which is made up of Seattle and its 18 water utility partners—offers water-saving rebates, community and youth education, cost-sharing with customers who retrofit old water-using equipment with new equipment that is more efficient than required by national and state codes, as well as educational campaigns for efficient water use in the landscape. Seattle City Light collaborates with Seattle Public Utilities on joint energy and water efficiency programs, often focusing on water heating.

Seattle has set a goal in its Water System Plan to reduce total average annual retail water use. The SWP has set a six-year regional conservation goal: reduce per capita use from current levels so that the SWP’s total average annual retail water use is less than 105 million gallons of water daily (mgd) from 2013 through 2018 despite forecasted population growth. In order to meet the goal, the amount of water used per person will need to decrease to offset growth. For 2015, the Saving Water Partnership met the goal, using 96.9 mgd.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The Wastewater Treatment utility, operated by King County, has an energy conservation goal of 2% per year from a 2007 baseline. Additionally, Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) has a program that is updating and modernizing its water and drainage and wastewater pump stations. Existing equipment is being updated with more energy efficient pumps. The newer facilities are also being designed to reduce the frequency of onsite maintenance therefore driving fuel energy savings also. Several of the water treatment plants generate energy on site from digester gas, and the West Point treatment plant has a combined heat and power system over its anaerobic digester which additionally produces 23,000 MWh annually.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Green Stormwater Infrastructure Executive Order established a city-wide goal of 700 million gallons of stormwater to be managed annually with green infrastructure by 2025. These projects focus on stormwater management and green infrastructure development. The executive order also calls for stricter siting criteria and development codes. The city has dedicated staff for its green infrastructure initiative.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of St. Louis’s Water Division and the energy utilities do not offer joint water or energy efficiency programs. At this point, the City of St. Louis Water Division does not have a goal to reduce water usage nor does it offer water conservation rebates or incentives to city residents.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

There is currently no goal established for saving energy through the municipal water system operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District has a CSO Volume Reduction Green Infrastructure Program, which has completed its pilot stage. The program will fund $100 million of green infrastructure improvements by 2034. Based on the experienced gained through the Pilot stage of the program, the program will advance to a full-scale program.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The City of Tampa offers water efficiency programs independently of the energy utilities, such as water audits, plumbing fixture retrofits, rain sensors, irrigation system efficiency check-ups and other programs. These programs and general water usage is monitored by the Water Use Restrictions Enforcement Program. The city has a year-round restriction on water use for all water sources except reclaimed water inside the city limits.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Tampa does not currently have an energy efficiency goal set in place for water services. However, its Wastewater Department employs staggered starting of motor loads throughout their facilities to reduce transient power usage. Additionally, the City of Tampa Wastewater Department produces approximately 1.18 million kWh per month by burning the methane gas from the digesters in the cogeneration engines. This supplies 25% of the electricity consumed on-site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City of Tampa does not have a comprehensive green stormwater infrastructure plan, but the City did recently initiate a $251,000,000 capital project program that will include green infrastructure applications.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

Virginia Beach Public Utilities provides water efficiency programs but not energy efficiency, and is a member of the EPA Water Sense partnership. They offer a low-flush toilet rebate program funded through the Department of Public Works. Water Sense participation also includes education, participation in regional water conservation programs, and a full cost recovery rate structure that penalizes excess water usage. Currently, the City of Virginia Beach does not have a specified goal for water efficiency.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Virginia Beach has not yet established a goal or comprehensive strategy for energy efficiency in its municipal water service operations. However, the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) recently completed an upgrade to the Atlantic Treatment Plant (ATP), installing a combined heat and power (CHP) system comprised of a gas cleaning system and two engine generators for power production and heat recovery.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In 2014, the City of Virginia Beach adopted its Stormwater Management Ordinance, which reflects the latest state stormwater management regulations. The ordinance does not coordinate stormwater management with green infrastructure investments.

The City of Virginia Beach’s 2016 Comprehensive Plan includes recommendations for stormwater management and green infrastructure, such as restoration of tree cover, preservation or creation of additional open spaces, and connections between green spaces. The Plan also has a section regarding open space and green infrastructure recommendations specifically focused on enhancing and improving water quality and specifications on establishment of greenway corridors.

Last Updated: January 2017

Water Efficiency

The District of Columbia offers water efficiency programs separately from the energy utilities. The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water) developed the award-winning High Usage Notification Application (HUNA) as a free service to proactively notify customers of high water use - including unknown household leaks, sprinklers accidentally left running or ruptured washing machine hoses. The HUNA has generated more than 18,000 notifications to customers since January 2006. 

Washington has the goal to decrease total water use by 40% by the end of 2032. DC Water is committed to protecting and preserving the national and local water supply through encouraging water-efficient practices, products, and services. By partnering with the EPA’s WaterSense program, DC Water will offer consumers useful water-saving techniques and encourage them to look for WaterSense labeled products, when making product choices. These products use about 20% less water and perform as well as, or better than, conventional models.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

DC Water has pursued several projects to reduce energy used for wastewater treatment. They have systematically retrofitted diffuser equipment at the Blue Plains treatment to significantly reduce energy consumed through the treatment process. They have also been improving tidal gates on an ongoing basis to reduce infiltration and water treatment volume.

DC Water, the regional water utility, operates an anaerobic digester to generate electricity and steam from solid waste. The energy facility at the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant uses the solids left over at the end of the wastewater treatment process to create electricity and steam. The project reduces the energy needs of the massive plant by about a third. DC Water expects to expand the capacity and efficiency of the system to meet even more of their energy load in the near future. The Bioenergy facility opened in 2015. It uses thermal hydrolysis to maximize anaerobic digestion.  Blue Plains is the first site in North America to utilize this technology. In recognition of this project, the District of Columbia and DC Water were one of four finalists from across the globe in the “clean energy” category in the C40 Cities awards in December 2016. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Finalized in 2012, the Sustainable DC Plan discusses ways to encourage the use of green infrastructure to manage stormwater. The Plan discusses using green infrastructure such as permeable pavement, bioswales, dense tree plantings, and other low impact development to capture pollutants before they reach the rivers. The second goal in the plan is to use 75% of the landscape to capture rainwater for filtration or reuse by 2032. The District also provides subsidies to properties that install green infrastructure through the “RiverSmart Program”, including green roofs, rain gardens, trees, and impermeable surfaces.

In 2013, the District issued the 2013 Rule on Stormwater Management and Soil Erosion and Sediment Control that establishes stormwater retention and performance standards for new development. The rule also created the Stormwater Retention Credit (SRC) Trading Program, the first of its kind in the nation. Properties throughout the District can generate Stormwater Retention Credits (SRCs) for voluntary green infrastructure projects that reduce stormwater runoff. Owners can then trade their SRCs in an open market to others who use them to meet the regulatory requirements for retaining stormwater.

Last Updated: January 2017