State and Local Policy Database

Appliance Standards Summary

Appliance and equipment standards have been one of the most successful policies used by the federal and state governments to save energy. When the federal government or states establish appliance and equipment standards, they are setting the bar for the minimum efficiency of products. Standards require products, such as refrigerators or air conditioners, to meet specific minimum efficiency requirements thereby reducing energy use and consequently saving consumers money while improving the environment. Standards prohibit the production and sales of products less efficient than the minimum requirements, causing manufacturers to focus on how to incorporate energy-efficient technologies into their products at the least cost and hastening the development of innovations that bring improved performance.

In doing so, standards provide all consumers with a minimum level of efficiency performance, making energy-efficient products more affordable and more widely available. Successful implementation at the state-level has often been followed by manufacturers and efficiency supporters negotiating consensus standards that are then recommended to Congress for adoption. Today the federal government often uses the standards set by states as a model for federal appliance standards.

Alabama has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Alaska has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: Arizona Revised Statutes, Title 44 (Trade and Commerce), Section 1375

Description: In 2005, A.R.S. 44-1375 created Arizona’s Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards, which implemented minimum energy efficiency standards for twelve products. Ten of the twelve state standards became effective January 1st, 2008, the other two became effective in 2010. However, all twelve have since been preempted by federal standards introduced in EPAct 2005 as well as the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

HB 2332, passed in 2009, amends A.R.S. 44-1375 by establishing new standards for three additional products – pool pumps, pool pump motors and electric spas – that became effective January 1, 2012. These have not been preempted by federal standards.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Arkansas has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: California Code of Regulations, Title 20, Sections 1601 - 1609

Description: California was the first state in the country to adopt appliance and equipment efficiency standards. The authority to adopt appliance and equipment efficiency standards was bestowed upon the California Energy Commission as stipulated under the Warren-Alquist Act, which was enacted in 1974. Over the years, California has adopted standards on more than 50 products, many of which have subsequently become federal standards. California has collaborated with other countries to set harmonized standards for products that have a worldwide market, beginning with external power supplies in 2007.  

On September 2, 2010, California's Office of Administrative Law approved the introduction of efficiency standards for televisions, making California the first state to adopt standards for televisions, effective 2011 with an updated standard becoming effective in 2013. In 2012 California adopted standards for battery chargers. In 2013 the Energy Commission began information collection and the “pre-rulemaking” phase of standards development for 15 categories of appliances. 

In April 2015, Governor Brown issued Executive Order B-29-15, establishing the first ever statewide mandatory water reductions to address California’s ongoing drought. One week later the Energy Commission adopted by emergency it’s proposed standards to reduce the water use of faucets, toilets and urinals. 

In May 2015, the Energy Commission adopted efficiency standards for fluorescent dimming ballasts, labeling requirements for HVAC air filters,and test and list requirements for heat pump water-chilling packages, all of which take effect July 1, 2016. In September 2015, under the emergency Executive Order B-29-15, the Energy Commission adopted two-tiered standards for showerheads, and amended its standards for lavatory faucets. Finally, in January 2016, the Energy Commission adopted standards for general service LED lamps and small-diameter directional lamps, which will take effect beginning January 1, 2018. During 2015 and 2016, the Energy Commission conducted pre-rulemaking workshops on standards for computers, computer monitors, and signage displays, as well as for pool pump motors and portable electric spas.

In August 2015, the Energy Commission launched its Modernized Appliance Efficiency Database System, which allows manufacturers to certify their products online and which has greatly improved the efficiency and utility of the state certification process."

In 2016, the Energy Commission adopted efficiency standards for computers, computer monitors, and signage display and conducted workshops for pool pumps and portable electric spas. In January 2017, the Energy Commission started Phase 2 of the appliance rulemaking as stated in the 2012 Order Instituting Rulemaking.  Appliances being considered for efficiency standards in Phase 2 include commercial and industrial fans and blowers, general service lamps, sprinkler spray bodies, tub-spout diverters, and irrigation controllers. 

In late 2018 and early 2019, the Energy Commission adopted standards for portable air conditioners, air compressors, and portable electric spas. 
 
Did the state adopt a provision to backstop light bulb standards in case of repeal or or rollback? Did the state adopt a provision to backstop all other federal standards in case of repeal or rollback?

Yes. In December 2008, California adopted a 45 lumen per watt standard for general service lamps (GSLs) as defined in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). This standard had an effective date of January 1, 2018, and was contingent upon DOE’s failure to complete certain actions as directed by Congress through EISA. DOE failed to complete those actions and California implemented the 45 lumen per watt standard for GSLs manufactured on or after January 1, 2018. Additionally, the Energy Commission has an active proceeding (Docket 17-AAER-07) to consider expanding the scope of the existing GSL standard, in case of repeal or rollback of DOE’s January 19, 2017, definitions for GSLs. 
 California’s Title 20 Appliance Efficiency Regulations have long had existing provisions that backstop all other federal appliance standards in case of repeal or rollback (Title 20 section 1605(a)).

Last Updated: June 2019

Policy: CRS § 6-7.5-101 et seq.

Description: In 2014, the Colorado state legislature adopted SB 14-103, An Act Concerning the Phase-Out of the Sale of Certain Low-Efficiency Plumbing Fixtures. The policy requires the sale of plumbing fixtures meeting WaterSense standards for lavatory faucets, toilets, urinals and showerheads. These standards went into effect in September 2016.

Legislation (HB19-1231) updates and adopts standards for water efficiency and energy efficiency that apply to a list of 15 consumer and commercial appliances and other products. The standards are based on state standards, federal Energy Star and WaterSense specifications, and industry standards in most cases or, where a standard is not incorporated by reference, the standard is specified by statute.

The standards apply to new products sold in Colorado and are phased in over a period of 3 years, with general service lamps covered beginning in 2020, air compressors and portable air conditioners covered beginning in 2022, and all other listed products covered beginning in 2021. The bill keeps in place the water efficiency standards on certain products that were added to the Colorado statutes in 2014. The bill also includes a provision to adopt federal light bulb standards in case of repeal or rollback. 

Last Updated: June 2019

Policy: C.G.S. Section 16a-48, Chapter 298, Energy Efficiency Standards

Description: In 2004 Connecticut General Statute 16a-48 was passed establishing energy efficiency standards that covered eight products, under jurisdiction of the Connecticut Office of Policy and Management and the Department of Public Utility Control.  Standards for five of the eight products were preempted by the federal standards included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Standards for an additional eight products were added in 2007, although three were preempted by the passing of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Of the eighteen standards introduced in Connecticut since 2001, only five have not been preempted by federal legislation. 

In January 2011, the Connecticut General Assembly passed Bill 1243, which added standards for compact audio players, televisions, and DVD players and recorders. The standards are based on standards from Title 20 of the California Code of Regulations. 

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Delaware has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: D.C. Codes § 8-1771; Energy Efficiency Standards Act of 2007

Description: In 2007 the District of Columbia introduced legislation, titled the Energy Efficiency Standards Act of 2007, which created standards for six products. On January 1st, 2009, four of these standards were preempted by the federal standards included in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. D.C. continues to enforce standards on two products: bottle-type water dispensers and commercial hot-food holding cabinets.  https://beta.code.dccouncil.us/dc/council/code/sections/8-1771.02.html

 

Last Updated: July 2018

Florida has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Georgia adopted plumbing standards for toilets in 2010. 

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Hawaii adopted appliance standards for five products in 2019 and adopted a backstop to adopt federal standards in case they are repealed

Last Updated: July 2019

Idaho has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Illinois has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Indiana has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Iowa has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Kansas has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Kentucky has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Louisiana has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Maine has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: Articles § 9-2006 and 14.26.03, Maryland Energy Efficiency Standards Act

Description: In 2004 the Maryland Energy Efficiency Standards Act (EESA) was passed establishing minimum energy efficiency standards for nine products. All nine products covered by the EESA were preempted by the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 immediately or by January 1st, 2010. In 2007, Maryland created standards for an additional seven products, although four of these standards were preempted by federal standards included in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Of the products for which Maryland has introduced standards, only two have not yet been preempted by federal standards: bottle-type water dispensers and commercial hot-food holding cabinets.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: M.G.L. Chapter 25B, § 1, et seq., Appliance Efficiency Standards Act

Description: Having originally adopted standards in 1986, Massachusetts was one of the first states to adopt appliance standards after California paved the way in 1974. In 2005, Massachusetts expanded its appliance standards legislation to cover seven products. The federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, however, introduced standards that preempted state standards for five of those products. New products that are considered for state standards are adopted through the Division of Energy Resources (DOER). 

In 2009, Massachusetts developed an application for a waiver of federal standards for gas furnace (and fans) minimum efficiency in order to implement its own, more stringent, standard; it is the only state to have done so. Their waiver application helped spur manufacturer interest in a negotiated federal standard. Federal standards preempted Massachusetts’ standard for furnaces in 2013 and furnace fans will be preempted in 2017. 

The 2018 appliance efficiency bill (H.4737) passed the House unanimously but was cut in Conference Committee on July 30, 2018. 

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Michigan has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Minnesota has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Mississippi has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Missouri has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Montana has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Nebraska has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: NRS § 701.260

Description: Assembly Bill 178, adopted June 2007 and codified as NRS § 701.260, established efficacy standards (efficiency of light) for general purpose incandescent lamps, effective January 1, 2012. The Nevada standard is exempt from federal preemption because it predates and is stronger than the federal standard. However, the state has not yet begun enforcing the standard and it is uncertain when enforcement will commence.

Nevada enacted AB54, adopting federal light bulb standards into state law. 

Last Updated: June 2019

Policy: R.S.A. 339-G, Minimum Efficiency Standards for Certain Products

Description: In 2008, New Hampshire introduced appliance standards for four products through the passing of SB 259, codified as R.S.A 339-G. The legislation set standards for bottle-type water dispensers, commercial hot-food holding cabinets, residential furnaces, and furnace fans. The standards became effective January 1, 2009. New Hampshire had its standards for furnaces preempted by federal standards in 2013 and furnace fans in 2017. Otherwise, its remaining two standards have not yet been preempted.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: N.J. Stat. § 48:3-99 et seq., New Jersey Energy Efficiency Product Standards

Description: In 2005 New Jersey Governor Richard J. Codey signed a bill introducing Energy Efficiency Product Standards that established minimum standards for eight products. All eight standards have been preempted by the 2005 federal Energy Policy Act, the latest as of January 1, 2010. Appliance standards in New Jersey are considered and adopted by the Board of Public Utilities in consultation with the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, as established by New Jersey Statute 48:3-99 and the Administrative Procedure Act (N.J.S.A. 52:14B-1 et seq.).

Last Reviewed: June 2019

New Mexico has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: NY LAWS ENG § 16-102, et seq., Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Standards

Description: Having originally adopted its standards in the 1980's, New York was one of the first states to adopt appliance standards after California paved the way in 1974. The duties of establishing standards fall upon the Department of State in consultation with the New York State Energy Research Department Authority (NYSERDA). New York Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Standards legislation was passed in 2005 and 2010, creating standards for nineteen products. Standards for fourteen of those products have been preempted by federal standards. The rulemakings for the standards of the eight remaining products are ongoing, so the standard levels have not yet been set and, consequently, are not being enforced.

2019: NYSERDA completed an extensive research project to validate estimated savings and identify additional cost-effective standards for future consideration.  

Last Reviewed: July 2019

North Carolina has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

North Dakota has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Ohio has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Updated: July 2018

Oklahoma has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: ORS  469.229 through ORS 469.229 et seq., Energy Efficiency Standards

Description: State efficiency standards are promulgated by Oregon's Department of Energy under guidelines established by Oregon Administrative rules which were created for the purpose of implementing the standards. Oregon passed legislation for Energy Efficiency Standards in 2005 and 2007 creating standards for seventeen products.  By January 1st, 2010, thirteen of these were preempted by federal standards mandated by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence Act of 2007. In 2013, Oregon set new standards for three products: televisions, battery chargers, and double-ended quartz halogen bulbs. 

In 2017, ODOE conducted minor rulemaking regarding definitions of small, non-consumer battery chargers. This was a non-substantial rulemaking however, and Oregon did not take any action to adopt any new appliance standards this year. Oregon continues to be an active member in the Pacific Codes Collaborative Codes and Standards group, along with California, Washington, and British Columbia. The PCC group conducts monthly calls to share and coordinate appliance standards activity across the region. We are closely monitoring federal inaction opportunities and preparing backstop standards in the event that certain federal standards are not renewed

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Pennsylvania has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: R.I. Gen. Laws § 39-27-1, et seq., Energy and Consumer Savings Act of 2005

Description: In 2005 the Energy and Consumer Savings Act established minimum energy efficiency standards for twelve commercial and residential products, nine of which were immediately preempted by the federal Energy Policy Act later that year, the last three preempted by federal standards effective January 1, 2010. In 2006, amendments were made to the 2005 legislation to create standards for an additional eight products, of which all but two have been preempted by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: bottle-type water dispensers and commercial hot-food holding cabinets. The Office of Energy Resources is the state agency responsible for the adoption and certification of efficiency standards in Rhode Island.     

In 2017, the State Energy Office testified in support of a proposed bill to expand appliance standards in the State in 2017: http://webserver.rilin.state.ri.us/BillText17/HouseText17/H6077.pdf

Last Reviewed: June 2019

South Carolina has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

South Dakota has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Tennessee has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Texas adopted plumbing product standards in 2009 for toilets and urinals. 

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Utah has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Description: In May 2018, Vermont passed bill H.410, An Act relating to adding products to Vermon'ts energy efficiency standards for appliances and equipment. The new law adopts efficiency standards for 16 products: 

Policy: 9 V.S.A. § 2791, et seq., Energy Efficiency Standards for Appliances and Equipment

Description: In May 2017, Vermont passed bill H.411, An Act Relating to Miscellaneous Energy Issues. The new law provides that the state will enforce federal standards if they are “withdrawn, repealed or otherwise voided” at the federal level. Efficiency measures protected by the new Vermont law include all standards on the federal books as of January 17, 2017, including ones that have yet to take effect, like the light bulb standards slated for 2020. In February 2006 Vermont passed bill H.0253, An Act Relating to Establishing Energy Efficiency Standards For Certain Appliances, which created energy efficiency standards for appliances. The Act created standards for seven products, which have since been preempted by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Virginia has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government. 

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Policy: RCW § 19.260.010, et seq., Minimum Efficiency Standards

Description: Washington enacted its initial appliance efficiency legislation in 2005, creating minimum efficiency standards for eleven products. All eleven have been preempted by standards introduced in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and one other will be preempted by federal standards that become effective in 2009. 

In May 2009 Governor Chris Gregoire signed HB 1004, adding efficiency standards for five more products that became effective January 1, 2010, of which only one has been preempted by federal standards. The adoption or recommendation of additional standards is the responsibility of the Energy Policy Division within the State Department of Commerce.  

Washington State adopted 16 new appliance and equipment standards in 2019 bringing the total of covered products to 22.  This modernizes Washington’s original appliance efficiency standards first adopted in 2005 and updated in 2009. Washington also adopted a first-in-nation water heater standard. The design requirement for electric water heaters requires that all new units have a standard communications port that will enable low cost deployment of demand response communications equipment using an open source protocol.        

Last Updated: July 2019

West Virginia has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Wisconsin has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019

Wyoming has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019