State and Local Policy Database


State Scorecard Rank



26.5Scored out of 50Updated 12/2020
State Government
Score: 5.5 out of 6
State Government Summary List All

Maine offers several financial incentives for consumer energy efficiency investments. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for public buildings and fleets and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Maine is one of the few states to adopt a residential energy use disclosure policy. Research focused on energy efficiency occurs at the Maine Technology Institute.

Financial Incentives List All

Financial incentive information for Maine is provided by the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE Maine) and State Energy Office contacts. Information about additional incentives not present on DSIRE is listed here. The state does enable Property Assessed Clean Energy Financing (PACE), but it does not have any active PACE programs. For additional information on PACE, visit PACENation.  

Advanced Building Program: This program offers comprehensive strategies to help Maine property owners, developers, architects and engineers design new commercial buildings that will achieve significant energy savings.  New buildings designed and constructed according to the Maine Advanced Buildings Program requirements will be 30 – 35% more energy-efficient than the Maine Uniform Building and Energy Code requirement.

Low Income Heat Pump Initiative: This initiative works directly with Maine's Community Action Programs to identify low
income homeowners with high fuel usage and install heat pumps in those homes.

Commercial and Industrial Custom Program: The C&I Custom Program is designed to leverage private investment to achieve electrical and thermal energy savings. Funding levels range from a minimum of $10,000 to a maximum of $1 million per customer, or up to 50% of the total project costs.

Last Updated: June 2018

Equity Metrics and Workforce DevelopmentList All

The Efficiency Maine Trust (EMT) program budgets in its Triennial Plan for FY2020-FY2022 reflect the minimum funding allocations to low-income customers set forth in rule -- see 95-648 Code of Maine Rules (CMR) ch. 3, §3(A)(2) and 95-648 CMR ch. 4, §3(2). For the the Electric Efficiency Procurement (electric ratepayer funds) this allocation is 10%. For the Natural Gas Conservation Fund (natural gas ratepayer funds), this allocation is set at a reasonable percentage considering low-income consumers’ share of gas load and the cost-effective opportunity available at their homes. For RGGI funds, the allocation to low income programs is 10%.

One of Maine's primary electrification strategies involves a goal to install 100,000 high-efficiency heat pumps over five years. This goal was set forth in a bill passed by the Maine Legislature in 2019: LD 1766 - An Act To Transform Maine's Heat Pump Market To Advance Economic Security and Climate Objectives. The bill requires the Maine State Housing Authority to include information in its annual planning process (for low-income weatherization programs) on targets and budgets related to the heat pump goal. Efficienct Maine Trust is also offering enhanced rebates for low and moderate income households. Efficiency Maine Trust has a 50% adder in its EV rebate program for any qualifying low income Mainer who purchases/leases for any qualifying BEV or PHEV. Efficiency Maine Trust earmarked funds specifically for disproprtionately low income communities in Maine to receive ehanced rebates for level 2 charging stations.

100% of WAP and LIHEAP-Weatherization funds are dedicated to low income Mainers who meet the criteria for LIHEAP eligibility. The funds are allocated pro-rata across the nine regions served by CAP agencies in the state.

Workforce Development

The Efficiency Maine Trust (EMT) Triennial Plan for FY2020-FY2022 continues EMT's past success of promoting training for key players in the energy conservation supply chain. EMT emphasizes the certification and licensing requirements for trade allies affiliated with Efficiency Maine programs. It also considers online and in-store training opportunities, scholarships, and other support for existing programs run by community colleges.

The Maine Legislature also passed a bill in 2019 -- LD 1282: An Act to Establish a Green New Deal for Maine -- that requires employers constructing a generation facility larger than 2 MW to employ apprentices.

The Maine Cliamte Council, created by legislation signed in 2019, began meeting in 2019 is charged with developing a Climate Action Plan by December 2020 that includes a clean energy economy transition plan. Specific legislative language: "The updated climate action plan under subsection 1 must include a clean energy economy transition plan that, as applicable, incorporates feedback from the Maine Climate Council working groups established under section 577-A, subsection 7 and which may incorporate feedback from other entities with expertise in education, training, apprenticeships, workforce and labor. The clean energy economy transition plan under this subsection must:
A.  Include opportunities for and address barriers to advancing the State's clean energy economy;
B.  Highlight strategies for the State's rural communities, workers and businesses as the State transitions to a low-carbon future that are designed to encourage good-paying jobs and long-term employment; and
C.  Identify policy recommendations; opportunities for public-private partnerships; workforce development and educational opportunities, including opportunities for training and retraining workers and the development of apprenticeship programs; and other strategies necessary to the creation of clean energy jobs and a robust clean energy economy in the State."

Last Updated: September 2020

Carbon Pricing PoliciesList All

Maine is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

The Efficiency Maine Trust (EMT) reports on greenhouse gas emissions achieved RGGI-funded energy efficiency programs through two channels: (1) the annual "Investment of RGGI Proceeds" report to RGGI Inc., and (2) the RGGI Annual Report to the Maine State Legislature. Maine accounts for the avoided cost of carbon using the Avoided Energy Supply Components (AESC) report that is updated every few years. In it, the price (value) of RGGI carbon allowances is factored into the avoided costs of every kilowatt-hour saved through efficiency programs. Maine applies the AESC cost of carbon in its cost-effectiveness test which is used in establishing MACE (Maine’s study of the potential for “all cost-effective energy efficiency”) and also in its annual reports.

Last Updated: October 2020

Building Energy Disclosure List All
  • Building type(s) affected: residential rental

H.P. 1468 requires the disclosure of an energy efficiency checklist to tenants or lessees and allows for the release of audit information of residential rental properties. This policy is triggered at the time of rental.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Public Building Requirements List All

Maine requires that construction or renovation of state buildings must incorporate green building standards that would achieve "significant" energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, provided that the costs of doing so are cost-effective over the life of the building. 

Maine Statutes Title 5, Section 1764-A also requires all planning and design for the construction of new or substantially renovated buildings owned or leased by the state include: (1) the consideration of energy efficiency, (2) an energy-use target that exceeds standards for commercial and institutional buildings by at least 20%, and (3) a life-cycle cost analysis over a minimum of 30 years that explicitly addresses the costs and benefits of efficiency improvements. 

Pursuant to a Legislative Resolve (Resolve 2009, Chapter 372), the State of Maine was charged with creating a task force to Advance Energy Efficiency, Conservation and Independence at State Facilities. The final report was issued in January 2010. The report concluded that energy efficiency, conservation and independence at the executive branch facilities of State Government should be improved by a number of means: continuing to attack and reduce consumption; conducting important and too-easily overlooked energy audits; diversifying the energy sources used at these facilities; reducing reliance on imported heating oil; and increasing the use of alternative and cost-effective renewable energy sources when possible.

In November 2019, Governor Mills signed Executive Order #13: An Order for State Agencies to Lead by Example Through Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy and Sustainability Measures. It calls for the creation of a Sustainbility Leadership Committee to develop a baseline of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from state operations by February 1, 2021. Every two years thereafter, the state shall report annual energy use, sources, greenhouse gas emissions, and progress on the plan to the Governor, the Legislature and post the report for the public. State agencies shall by February 1, 2021 coordinate with the Leadership Committee to develop and implement a sustainability plan to meet or exceed the state’s renewable energy and greenhouse gas reduction timelines and targets.

Last Updated: July 2020

Fleets List All

Statute (MRSA Title 5 1812-E) mandates that except for cars and light-duty trucks purchased for law enforcement and other special use purposes, the State Purchasing Agent may not purchase or lease any car or light-duty truck for state use unless the car has a manufacturer's estimated highway mileage rating of at least 45 mpg and the light-duty truck has a manufacturer's estimated highway mileage rating of at least 35 mpg.

Pursuant to the Governor's Executive Order, the Maine DOT Central Fleet has purchased six battery electric vehicles for usage across state government.

Last Updated: July 2020

Energy Savings Performance Contracting List All

In 1999, Maine enacted an energy savings pilot project, which used ESPCs to achieve energy efficiency goals. In 2005, the governor of Maine joined the Energy Star Challenge, committing to encourage building owners and operators to improve energy efficiency by 10% using performance contracting and other mechanisms. Today, all energy efficiency programming in the State of Maine is administered by Efficiency Maine.

The State of Maine has identified specific projects that could be part of a performance contract agreement. The long term plans for the State include the development of additional Energy Saving Performance contracting at a variety of facilities and locations. BGS is working to determine the viability of Private Public Partnerships for renovation and energy improvements at older state facilities.

Last Reviewed: July 2020

Research & Development List All

The Maine Technology Institute (MTI) invests in research and development. MTI defines their areas of focus as clusters and one of those is Energy and the Environment and explicitly includes energy efficiency technologies.  

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Important Links List All


Score: 4.5 out of 9
Buildings Summary List All

The state has adopted the 2015 versions of the IRC, IBC, and IEBC effective January 2018. The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) remains the 2009 version. ASHRAE standards (ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality, air quality in low rise residential buildings, and Energy Standard for Buildings except low rise residential buildings) have been updated to the 2013 version. Municipalities with less than 4,000 residents are not required to enforce the state codes, but if they adopt a code, it must be consistent with the state adopted code. Efforts are ongoing to adopt the 2015 IECC. 

Last reviewed: August 2020

Residential Codes List All

In 2019, the Maine Legislature enacted three important amendments to residential building codes. First, Public Law (PL) 391 established that the Maine Uniform Building and Energy Code (MUBEC) must update the code from the 2009 IECC to the 2015 or a newer version, that it must be kept up to date with the latest version of the IECC, and required that it be applied in every municipality in Maine, regardless of population. (Pursuant to existing law, enforcement of the code is voluntary in municipalities having fewer than 4,000 customers, representing about 40% of the population). Second, PL 517 modified and improved the oversight and training of code enforcement officers. Third, PL 392 required the MUBEC to establish a stretch code that may be adopted by any municipality. In 2019, the Technical Codes and Standards Board formally decided to adopt the 2015 IRC, IEBC, and IECC and commenced a rulemaking process to update the Maine code.

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Commercial Code List All

In 2019, the Maine Legislature enacted three important amendments to building codes. First, Public Law (PL) 391 established that the Maine Uniform Building and Energy Code (MUBEC) must update the code from the 2009 IECC to the 2015 or a newer version, that it must be kept up to date with the latest version of the IECC, and required that it be applied in every municipality in Maine, regardless of population. (Pursuant to existing law, enforcement of the code is voluntary in municipalities having fewer than 4,000 customers, representing about 40% of the population). Second, PL 517 modified and improved the oversight and training of code enforcement officers. Third, PL 392 required the MUBEC to establish a stretch code that may be adopted by any municipality. In 2019, the Technical Codes and Standards Board formally decided to adopt the 2015 IRC, IEBC, and IECC and commenced a rulemaking process to update the Maine code.

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Compliance List All
  • Gap Analysis/Strategic Compliance Plan: NA
  • Baseline & Updated Compliance Studies: In 2013, the Governor’s Energy Office surveyed all code enforcement officers in the 89 municipalities required to enforce MUBEC. For the 2012 calendar year, 99.7% of homes and commercial buildings constructed were in compliance (excluding buildings still under construction or awaiting final inspection).  Compliance was determined by number of building permits issued versus occupancy permits, or inspections performed by a third-party inspector. Moreover, Efficiency Maine Trust has signed a contract for a vendor to conduct a study in 2020.
  • Utility Involvement: Maine statute requires Efficiency Maine invovlement of  adoption, amendment, and maintenance of the state's energy code. Efficiency Maine participates in code development and offers training programs for Maine builders and contractors.
  • Stakeholder Advisory Group: Maine has a Technical Building Codes and Standards Board comprised of architects, engineers, builders, and energy efficiency experts. Additionally, Maine has an “advisory group,” managed by the Board, called the Technical Advisory Group (TAG), where energy efficiency advocate have provide cost-effectiveness analysis to support the adoption of building energy codes.
  • Training/Outreach: There is advanced energy code training available; the cost is subsidized for code officials. This advanced training is a collaborative effort between the Dept. of Economic and Community Development, the State Fire Marshall, and the Energy Office. The state Dept. of Economic and Community Development offers training at the basic certification level (free to those applying for initial certification), as well as advanced energy code training. Once certified, code enforcement officers need to obtain training annually to keep their certification current. The Maine Building Officials and Inspector Association, as well as several regional organizations, seek out training opportunities for their members, and partially support the cost of these opportunities. 

Last Updated: September 2020

CHP Summary List All

Maine has a favorable interconnection standard that applies to CHP and includes CHP within its renewable energy standard. No new CHP systems were installed in 2018.

Interconnection StandardsList All

Policy: Docket No. 2009-219 - Order Adopting Interconnection Rule

Summary:  In January 2010, Maine's Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in Maine. The interconnection procedures set four tiers of review for interconnection requests for all eligible technologies and systems subject to Maine PUC jurisdiction. The four tiers are not subject to jurisdiction of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).

Last Updated: July 2018

Encouraging CHP as a ResourceList All

CHP in Energy Efficiency Standards:  Adopted in 1999, Maine’s Renewable Resources Portfolio Requirement allows electricity generated from efficient CHP systems and other systems that qualify as "small power production facilities" under the federal Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) as eligible. CHP counts toward renewable resources in the state, provided it is at least 60% efficient. Maine electricity providers must supply at least 30% of their total sales as renewable resources. In 2007, Maine created mandatory standards for new generation resources, with a goal of 10% of new energy resources to be supplied by renewable resources by 2017 and thereafter.

Production goal: Maine law requires that the utilities (through Efficiency Maine Trust) develop and procure all cost-effective, reliable and achievable energy efficiency resources (MACE) in the state (35-A MRS §§10110 and 10111). Based on the most recent MACE Potential Study, Efficiency Maine Trust is required to pursue 646,022 MWh in CHP savings over the next 10 years. The plan calls for Efficiency Maine to add incremental delivery of 42,000 MWh from CHP in 2017, 53,000 MWh in 2018, and 64,000 MWh in 2019. Qualifying CHP projects will receive from Efficiency Maine a minimum of $10,000 to a maximum of $1 million per facility or up to 50% of the total project costs.

Last Updated: July 2018

Deployment IncentivesList All

Incentives, grants, or financing: CHP is eligible for incentives through Efficiency Maine Trust’s Commercial and Industrial Custom Program, an incentive program for large electrical efficiency and distributed generation projects. This competitive program solicits proposals for projects that reduce grid supplied kilowatt hour (kWh) consumption from Maine businesses, institutions, and governments. Incentive awards range from $10,000 and $1,000,000 per project, or up to 50% of total project costs. In 2017, the program ran a limited-time bonus incentive for CHP projects, offering assistance for up to 70% of total project costs. While this bonus ended, Efficiency Maine continues to collaborate with the University of Maine-led CHP Technical Assistance Partnership center on CHP project outreach efforts.

Net Metering: All of Maine's electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities (IOUs), consumer-owned utilities (COUs, which include municipal utilities and electric cooperatives) -- must offer net energy billing (net metering) for individual customers. IOUs are required to offer net metering to eligible facilities with capacity limits up to 660 kilowatts (kW). COUs are required to offer net metering to customer-generators up to 100 kW, but, they are authorized to offer net metering to eligible facilities with capacity limits up to 660 kW at their discretion.

Net metering is available to owners of eligible, qualified facilities, including facilities generating electricity using eligible CHP systems. CHP systems must meet efficiency requirements in order to qualify for net metering: micro-CHP 30 kW and below must achieve combined electrical and thermal efficiency of 80% or greater, and micro-CHP 31 kW to 660 kW must achieve combined efficiency of 65% or greater.

Maine requires that a third party review the feasibility of non-transmission alternatives, including distributed generation such as CHP, before approving any new transmission infrastrucutre of 69 kV or more.

Last Updated: July 2019

Additional Supportive PoliciesList All

Some additional supportive policies exist to encourage CHP in Maine. Efficiency Maine provides funding for up to 50% of the cost of Technical Assistance Studies up to $20,000.

Renewable-fueled CHP is also eligible for credit within Maine's Renewables Portfolio Standard, which involves the use of NEPOOL Generation Information System (GIS) certificates (similar to renewable-energy credits, or RECs) to satisfy the portfolio requirement.

Last Updated: July 2018

Score: 9 out of 20
Utilities Summary List All

In 2010, the independent Efficiency Maine, managed by a stakeholder board, assumed responsibility for administering energy efficiency and alternative energy programs across all utility territories in Maine. The Legislature directed the Maine Public Utilities Commission (MPUC) to provide oversight of Efficiency Maine’s administration as well as approve its three-year strategic plans and budgets. Legislation enacted in 2013 requires the utilities to fund Efficiency Maine’s budgets at a level sufficient to procure all electric and natural gas efficiency that is cost-effective, reliable, and achievable.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last reviewed: September 2020

Customer Energy Efficiency Programs List All

All electric utility customers—both of consumer-owned and publicly-owned utilities—are eligible to receive services through the statewide programs administered by Efficiency Maine. The purposes of Efficiency Maine include consolidating the funds for Maine's consumer efficiency programs for all fuel types; integrating delivery of electric and thermal efficiency measures to consumers; acquiring customer-sited energy resources (efficiency and alternative energy) at lower cost than traditional energy supply; and helping to transform the energy market in Maine by providing consumers with more efficient, affordable products and energy services. All utilities contribute funding to the programs.

Natural gas programs are also administered by Efficiency Maine and serve commercial, industrial, and residential customers, including low-income residential customers. State statute was amended as part of the Omnibus Energy Act passed in 2013, to extend these programs to each natural gas utility in the state.

By rule, at least 10% of funds must support energy programs for low-income residents, and at least 20% of funds must support energy programs for small business customers. Historically, the PUC has assessed utilities to collect funds for energy programs and administrative costs. In addition, Efficiency Maine manages money from the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and grants, such as those received from the Federal government's American Recovery Reinvestment Act (ARRA) in 2010. The funds for natural gas conservation programs are collected through a rate surcharge.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Energy Efficiency as a Resource List All

The Maine statute establishes the requirement that utilities procure "all cost-effective energy efficiency" by funding Efficiency Maine Trust programs at levels sufficient to meet that standard.  See 35-A MRS 10104(4).  Also, the newly established Non-Wires Alternative law establishes an independent Coordinator to analyze all transmission and distribution proposals over $500,000 to determine if NWA resources, including energy efficiency, are the more cost-effective resource and, if so, to effectuate the procurement of that resource.  See 35-A MRS 3132-C.

Also, Maine has had a loading order that requires utilities to use energy efficiency before any other traditional resource (35-A MRS 3210-C (4)) when securing energy resources by means of long-term contracts. In March 2010, the Governor signed Public Law Chapter 518, An Act To Enhance Maine's Clean Energy Opportunities. It goes beyond previous policy to set the goal for Efficiency Maine as “capturing all cost-effective energy efficiency resources available for electric and natural gas utility ratepayers”.

Efficiency Maine plans energy efficiency programs in three-year increments. The second Triennial Plan, from fiscal year 2014-2016, was approved by the MPUC in March 2013 (see Docket No. 2012-00449). The third Triennial Plan covering fiscal years 2017-2019 was approved in 2016.

Last reviewed: September 2020

Energy Efficiency Resource Standards List All

Summary: Annual savings targets of ~2.3% for electric and 0.1% for natural gas for 2020-2022.

The Maine Public Utilities Commission (MPUC) approved the fourth Triennial Plan of Efficiency Maine, which develops, plans, coordinates, and implements energy efficiency programs in the state. The fourth Triennial Plan sets annual savings targets for 2020-2022 of 2.3% for electricity and 0.1% for natural gas, along with additional savings targets for other fuels.

The 10- and 20-year targets established by statute are far-reaching and were incorporated into the strategy and budgets of the Triennial Plan. Targets were revised in 2013, when Maine legislators overrode the governor’s veto to pass LD 1559. Targets include capturing all cost-effective energy efficiency (both electricity and natural gas); reducing electricity and natural gas consumption 20% by 2020; reducing oil heating use 20% in the same timeframe; and conducting weatherization of all homes for which homeowners are willing to share the costs of cost-effective weatherization to a minimum standard.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Utility Business Model List All

Efficiency programs in Maine are implemented by an independent trust called Efficiency Maine. Efficiency Maine is managed by a stakeholder board of trustees, with oversight from the MPUC. It is considered a quasi-state agency. There are statutory provisions allowing decoupling and incentives. 35-A MRSA section 3195, subsection 3195 (1) deals with rate-adjustment mechanisms and subsection 3195 (1) (A) authorizes the MPUC to adopt a decoupling mechanism. The state’s largest electric utility, serving roughly 80% of statewide load, proposed and was granted decoupling in its rate case  in 2014 (Docket No. 2013-00168).

Last reviewed: September 2020

Evaluation, Measurement, & Verification List All
  • Primary cost-effectiveness test(s) used: total resource cost test 

  • Secondary cost-effectiveness test(s) used: utility cost test

The independent evaluation of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in Maine is required by statute (Title 35a Section 10104 subsection 10). Evaluations are administered by Efficiency Maine. Requirements for these evaluations in Maine are articulated in Code of Maine Rules 65-407, Ch. 380 transferred to Code of Maine Rules 95-648, Ch. 380. Statewide evaluations are conducted

According to the Database of State Efficiency Screening Practices (DSESP), Maine relies on the Total Resource Cost Test (TRC) and considers it to be its primary cost-effectiveness test. Maine’s TRC accounts for avoided fossil fuel and supply water and wastewater processing costs. Economic development, job creation, productivity improvements, and environmental benefits are included to the extent they can be quantified and valued. Maine also has a target of 10% of available program funds or $2.6 million, whichever is greater, to low-income programs.

Further information on cost-effectiveness screening practices for Maine is available in the Database of State Efficiency Screening Practices (DSESP), a resource of the National Efficiency Screening Project (NESP).

Last reviewed: July 2019

Guidelines for Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs List All

Requirements for State and Utility Support of Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs

LD-1559, passed in June 2013, states that Efficiency Maine Trust shall “target at least 10% of funds for electricity conservation collected under subsection 4 or 4-A or $2,600,000, whichever is greater, to programs for low-income residential consumers, as defined by the board by rule.”  For the Natural Gas Conservation Fund (natural gas ratepayer funds), this allocation is set at a reasonable percentage considering low-income consumers’ share of gas load and the cost-effective opportunity available at their homes, which in practice EMT has set at 10%.  Regarding the use of RGGI funds, the statute requires that EMT "shall ensure that measures to reduce the cost of residential heating are available for low-income households..." and EMT allocates a minimum of 10% to Low-Income Initiatives. See 35-A MRS §10109(4)(A).

Following the passage of LD 1766 in 2019 and its establishment of a state-wide goal to install 100,000 high-performance heat pumps by 2025, MaineHousing allocated a portion of its annual LIHEAP weatherization budgets to pay for the installation of 1,000 heat pumps/year in LIHEAP-eligible homes. 

Cost-Effectiveness Rules for Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs

Maine does not have specific cost-effectiveness guidelines in place for low-income programs. However, the cost-effectiveness test for all programs requires consideration of non-energy benefits including “…reduced operations and maintenance costs, job training opportunities and workforce development, general economic development and environmental benefits, to the extent that such benefits can be accurately and reasonably quantified and attributed to the program or project.”

The Maine PUC allows EMT to bundle individual measures in Low-Income homes that, taken alone, may score as low as 0.7 using the Total Resource Cost Test but, when bundled, achieve a TRC of 1.0 or above.  Additionally, EMT's strategic plan, approved by the PUC, provides that "For Low-Income Initiatives, a monetary benefit for avoided bad debt may be included in the benefit-cost assessment. Inclusion of that benefit requires a study of bad debt avoidance attributable to energy efficiency to quantify the impact."  EMT, Triennial Plan IV, at pp. 4-7

Coordination of Ratepayer-Funded Low-Income Programs with WAP Services

The Maine State Housing Authority administers the federal Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) for the state. State regulations require the Housing Authority to ensure effective coordination of WAP with the Housing Authority’s Central Heating Improvement Program (CHIP)—which finances energy-related repairs for low-income homeowners—as well as with other bill assistance programs. 2009 Public Law Chapter 372 requires that the Housing Authority must also coordinate WAP plans and use of federal DOE funds with the programs administered by Efficiency Maine Trust.

Following the passage of LD 1766 in 2019 and its establishment of a statewide goal to install 100,000 high-performance heat pumps by 2025, MaineHousing allocated a portion of its annual LIHEAP weatherization budgets to pay for the installation of 1,000 heat pumps/year in LIHEAP-eligible homes. 

Last reviewed: November 2020

Self Direct and Opt-Out Programs List All

Pursuant to Title 35-A MRSA §10110 (6), large electricity customers receiving service at transmission and subtransmission (T&ST) voltage levels are not required to pay in rates any amount associated with any procurement of energy efficiency resources by transmission and distribution utilities. Consequently, these customers are not eligible for incentives that leverage the Electric Efficiency Procurement funds through the Efficiency Maine Trust. Instead, electric efficiency incentives for these customers are funded with Forward Capacity Market (FCM) revenues, Maine Power Reliability Program (MPRP) Settlement, or RGGI funds.

Until recently, Maine’s largest natural gas customers, whose usage exceeded 1 million centum cubic feet (CCF) of natural gas annually, were exempt from contributing to the Natural Gas Efficiency Procurement; as such, they were not eligible for the Trust’s natural gas efficiency programs. However, in the spring of 2017, the Legislature amended the law once again, codifying the inclusion of large, non-generator, users. It maintained a limited exclusion for large manufacturers, agricultural, and aquaculture businesses; from FY2018 forward, these customers pay the natural gas assessment on their first 1 million CCF of usage and are eligible for the Trust’s natural gas efficiency programs. (See 35-A MRSA §10111(2)).

More information on large customer self-direct programs can be found in the ACEEE report, Follow the Leaders: Improving Large Customer Self-Direct Programs.

Last reviewed: September 2020

Data AccessList All

Guidelines for Third Party Access

In 2007, Maine's Electronic Business Transactions (EBT) Working Group prepared Standards for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in the Restructured Electric Industry, which includes procedures, electronic protocols and data formats to be used when transferring data among entities in support of retail competition. There is also ongoing Customer Data Dissemination Working Group to develop the policies and guidelines around customer AMI data. Please see here for more information.

Requirements for Provision of Energy Data

Maine requires the provision of individual meter data to customers in an electronic format and to third parties upon authorization of the customer. Data is generally provided via spreadsheet through secure electronic transfer. Utilities cannot disclose customer information except for debt collection, credit reporting, usage reporting pursuant to state and federal law, law enforcement requests, and in response to a Commission Order. Third-party eligibility depends on whether or not the party falls into one of these exemptions. Efficiency Maine has been granted access to individual meter data through a Commission Order.

Energy Use Data Availability

Energy use data may be requested by Efficiency Maine by submitting the request to the Maine Public Utilities Commission. The Commission will issue a Protective Order that ensures the confidentiality of the data. Efficiency Maine has the authority to request this data under the Efficiency Maine Trust Act (35-A M.R.S.A. §10104(4)(A)(1)).

Last reviewed: July 2019

Score: 7.5 out of 12
Transportation Summary List All

Maine has set targets for reduced vehicle miles traveled, has standards for tailpipe emissions, and integrates transportation and land use planning. 

Tailpipe Emission Standards List All

Maine adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to a 30% reduction in average new vehicle greenhouse gas emissions from 2002 levels by 2016. The state has also adopted California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025. 

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Transportation System Efficiency List All

Transportation and Land Use Integration: Maine adopted a Growth Management Act in 1987 that aimed to encourage growth in certain areas of the state while also planning for and financing an efficient system of public facilities and amenities that would cater to added development. The Act also encouraged municipalities to plan for future growth by developing comprehensive local plans while keeping the regional impact in perspective. The state also implemented a complete streets policy in 2014 as a complement to their land use policies.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: Maine has a state DOT policy help ensure that all users of Maine’s transportation system—our customers—including bicyclists, pedestrians, people of all ages and abilities, transit users, and motor vehicle users, have safe and efficient access to the transportation system

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Maine has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Transit Funding List All

The Maine Legislature created a dedicated revenue stream for multimodal transportation in 2012 (M.R.S.A Title 23, §4210-B). Through sales tax revenues derived from taxes on vehicle rentals, Maine’s Multimodal Transportation Fund must be used for the purposes of purchasing, operating, maintaining, improving, repairing, constructing and managing the assets of multimodal forms of transportation.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Incentives for High-Efficiency Vehicles List All

The Efficiency Maine Trust (EMT) offers rebates on electric vehicles and public EV charging stations as a result of allocating $8.2 million of Volkswagen (VW) settlement funds to these objectives (Link).

Last Revised: June 2020

Equitable Access to TransportationList All
Maine does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Appliance Standards
Score: 0 out of 3
Appliance Standards Summary List All

Maine has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019