State and Local Policy Database


State Scorecard Rank



13.5Scored out of 50Updated 12/2020
State Government
Score: 4 out of 6
State Government Summary List All

Missouri offers several loans for energy efficiency investments, a personal tax deduction for home energy audits and energy efficiency improvements, and PACE financing. The state government leads by example by setting energy requirements for fleets and encouraging the use of energy savings performance contracts. Researched focused on energy efficiency takes place at two institutions in the state.

Financial Incentives List All

The state of Missouri offers the following financial incentives to encourage energy efficiency improvements:

  • Energy Loan Program (ELP): Since the Energy Loan Program’s inception in 1989, MoDNR-DE has awarded more than 623 loans, resulting in more than $118 million in completed energy efficiency projects and more than $226 million in estimated cumulative energy savings.
  • Missouri Agriculture Energy Saving Team - a Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) Grant: The MAESTRO grant was created to help small farming operations across Missouri reduce energy use. Funding will be used to assist school districts with agriculture programs.

Further financial incentive information can be found in the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE Missouri). In addition to these state-funded incentives, Missouri has enabled commercial and residential Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing and has several active programs. For additional information on PACE, visit PACENation.

Last Updated: June 2022

Equity Metrics and Workforce DevelopmentList All

Division of Energy (DE) is in the early stages of the Missouri State Energy Planning (MoSEP) process and held a Virtual Energy Stakeholder Kickoff Workshop in October 2020. DE requested and received the participation of a representative from Consumers Council of Missouri in the meeting to represent the interests and needs of the low-income consumers in Missouri energy planning, who offered challenges low-income customers face including energy insecurity, service disconnections, and others. A value statement was developed based on stakeholder feedback received during the kickoff meeting that includes affordability and equity in access to energy resources, services and programs. DE is taking a regional approach to energy planning that will enable a greater level of granularity in the local goals and priorities included in the MoSEP process. The regional approach will allow community and organizational leaders of marginalized groups to have their interests and needs heard to a greater degree than might have been possible through a more generalized approach to energy planning.

The Missouri Energy Efficiency Advisory Collaborative, established by Missouri Public Service Commission rule and docketed under Case No. EW-2013-0519, includes a Low-Income Work Group that meets multiple times a year to specifically address low-income customers' energy efficiency needs. The work group meetings include a variety of stakeholders. In addition, the Missouri Public Service Commission rules at 4 CSR 240-20-094(3)(A)4 require that market potential studies, "Include an estimate of the achievable potential, regardless of cost-effectiveness, of energy savings from low-income demand-side programs. Energy savings from multi-family buildings that house low-income households may count toward this target."

DE anticipates the inclusion of clean energy workforce development initiatives in the MoSEP process. Potential initiatives being offered for stakeholder consideration include military transition assistance programs and inmate career readiness programs that focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and power lineman training. DE staff are monitoring the Midwestern Governor Association’s initiative to prepare Midwestern communities for power plant closures through attendance of the meetings held by several subgroups, including the subgroup for workforce and education. DE WAP staff are engaging the Missouri Department of Workforce Development to discuss the development of energy retrofit skills training with the ultimate goal of filling the void of technical staff in the community action agencies around the state. DE is developing a grant program to support small agriculture businesses that would provide funding for energy projects in agricultural operations. Enabling energy updates could lower energy bills and improve the bottom line of agricultural operations. DE is also developing an energy audit grant program for local government critical infrastructure (including public safety facilities, water and waste), public K-12 schools, public universities and colleges and public and private not-for-profit hospitals, small commercial/industrial and multifamily properties. Reducing energy costs in public buildings will allow funds to be redirected to other needs, such as workforce development. Related, DE has continued to offer its Energy Loan Program (ELP) to public entities to reduce energy costs. During the COVID pandemic, DE has offered loans with interest rates of 1.75%, lower than the average rate used by the program of approximately 3.67%.

Last Updated: July 2021

Carbon Pricing PoliciesList All

The State of Missouri does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, neither the state nor the utilities track avoided GHG emissions through energy efficiency programs, and the utilities do not currently include emissions reductions within benefit-cost testing calculations.

Last Updated: July 2020

Building Energy Disclosure List All

At Governor Nixon’s request, the Division of Energy developed a voluntary Missouri Home Energy Certification that identifies and recognizes energy efficient new and existing homes in Missouri. It is designed to help homeowners convey the invested value of energy efficient measures in their homes to potential buyers. The Division of Energy worked with the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance and convened stakeholder group meetings gathering input on the criteria and design of the certification that includes home energy ratings and highly efficient energy assets based on the 2012 IECC. The MHEC rolled out on February 20, 2015.

In addition, the Division of Energy worked with stakeholders to transition to the Green Building Registry as a means of storing green home data and disseminating it to regional MLSs, real estate companies, and municipalities. The Green Building Registry (GBR) for Missouri serves as an online listing of homes with an emphasis on the property's energy usage and efficiency scores by sourcing home energy data from utility companies, regional energy efficiency programs, and scoring and certification programs. The purpose of the website is to report accurate home efficiency data and provide real estate agents with a cloud-based data import that is capable of easily transferring data into multiple listing service (MLS) in a format consistent with national real estate (RESO Dictionary) and energy efficiency (HPXML) data standards. Since the inception of MHEC, more than 4,800 homes have received an energy assessment. This information can be made available at the homeowner’s consent through the GBR at the time of a real estate listing. The Division also constructed a continuing education course targeting real estate professionals that includes rating systems. The training module provides three continuing education units and was approved by the Missouri Real Estate Commission. Presentations of the course are planned. Division of Energy staff is working toward updating the course so that it is available online for free.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Public Building Requirements List All

In 1993, Missouri enacted legislation requiring life-cycle cost analysis for all new construction of state buildings and substantial renovations of existing state buildings when major energy systems are involved. Substantial renovations involve projects that either affect at least 50 percent of the building's square footage or cost at least 50 percent of its market value.

Signed in 2008, Senate Bill 1181 required that by July 1, 2009, all design for state buildings over 5,000 square feet involving new construction or substantial renovation and any building over 5,000 square feet considered for purchase or lease by a state agency will comply with the minimum energy efficiency standard. The act also set the minimum energy efficiency standard so that it is at least as stringent as the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (2006 IECC) or the latest version of the code rather than the current standard of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.

Governor Nixon signed Executive Order 09-18 in 2009, which mandated that all state agencies whose building management falls under the direction of the Office of Administration (OA) adopt policies designed to reduce energy consumption by 2 percent each year for the following 10 years. Additionally, the order required that all new construction projects by agencies whose buildings are managed by OA must be at least as stringent as the most recent International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). In response to the order, OA and the Division of Facilities Management, Design and Construction (FMDC) developed and adopted a State Building Energy Efficiency Design Standard (BEEDS), which the state is in the process of updating.

As of July 1, 2018, state-owned commercial buildings must comply with the 2018 IECC, pursuant to Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) Section 8.812 requirement: "Such standard shall be at least as stringent as the 2006 IECC or the latest version thereof."

A State Energy Program competitive grant entitled “Reinvigorating Missouri’s State Facilities Energy Conservation Program,” which was completed between 2012 and 2016, focused on supporting the goals of EO 09-18. The scope of the grant included employee outreach, benchmarking, energy auditing, combined heat and power feasibility study, district energy thermal energy metering study, review of energy savings performance contracting status, and energy-focused training for facilities management staff members. OA-FMDC utilized the Missouri State Energy Portal and Utility Dashboard to benchmark energy consumption across OA’s building stock using the 2008 calendar year as the baseline year. The portal tracks energy reduction and cost savings on a monthly basis. Sixty-five Missouri state government facilities with a cumulative square footage of approximately 11 million square feet were benchmarked in Portfolio Manager by the Missouri Division of Energy in partnership with OA-FMDC, which represents approximately 50 percent of square footage managed by OA and the Department of Corrections.

All Missouri Housing Development Commission (MHDC) financed low-income housing developments, receiving federal or state low-income housing tax credits (LIHTC), an MHDC loan or grant, must comply with the construction code used by the local government where the development is located or in the absence of such codes, the IBC 2012, and/or the IRC 2012. If new construction, sustainable building techniques and materials must meet current standards of a green building rating system.

Last Reviewed: June 2022

Fleets List All

Fuel Conservation for State Vehicles, Sections 414.400 - 414.417 RSMo, (in place since 1999) and the Federal Energy Policy Act establish opportunities for Missouri state agencies to manage transportation fuel consumption and promote the use of clean domestic alternative fuels. The Missouri statute seeks to increase the average fuel efficiency of the state fleet and increase the use of cleaner alternative transportation fuels in state vehicles. Each state agency, with assistance from the Department of Natural Resources (Division of Energy), shall develop and implement a vehicle fleet energy conservation plan for the purposes of reducing vehicle fuel consumption (414.403, RSMo). The Division of Energy and the Office of Administration are required to develop and implement a program to manage and progressively reduce state agency vehicle fleet consumption. Guidelines must be developed, updated, and revised every two years that require the overall vehicle fleet fuel efficiency for each agency to meet or exceed the fuel efficiency that would be achieved if each vehicle in the agency's fleet met the CAFE standard (414.400, RSMo). 

Last Reviewed: June 2022

Energy Savings Performance Contracting List All

The Office of Administration – Division of Facilities, Management, Design, and Construction is the lead agency for ESPCs. The agency provides technical assistance to state agencies and has overseen 70% of floor space of 3500 buildings retrofitted using performance contracting. Since 2005 OA-FMDC performed approximately $100,000,000 of energy retrofits, upgrades, installations of controls and addition of some sub - metering in numerous state buildings totaling approximately 14.7 million square feet.

Last Reviewed: July 2020

Research & Development List All

The Midwest Energy Efficiency Research Consortium (MEERC) located at the University of Missouri-Columbia in partnership with regional industry partners and government agencies, is focused on developing academic courses and training programs, advancing development and applications of energy efficient technologies and disseminating information on the value of energy efficiency.  Six consortium partner centers are part of MEERC -Lighting Research Center, High Performance Building Center, Energy Solutions and Service Center, Agricultural Energy Efficiency Center, Low Energy Heating and Cooling Center, and Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Center. 

The National Energy Retrofit Institute at the University of Central Missouri is a consortium formed to promote an energy retrofit model for the residential energy efficiency sector.

The Energy Research and Development Center at Missouri University of Science and Technology.  Research includes a spectrum of energy issues including resources and efficiency of their use, processing facilities, generation facilities and the entire energy infrastructure needed as well as ensuring the sustainability of our environment.

Mid‐America Regional Council (MARC) has formed a partnership with a consortium of city and county governments, entitled the Regional Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy (REECS) Initiative. Eleven area communities work together to help the region conserve energy and use it wisely, as well as providing training and guidance on updated energy codes. Missouri REECS communities include Blue Springs, Clay County, Independence, Jackson County, Johnson County, Kansas City, and Lee's Summit.

Exploring Energy Efficiency and Alternatives (E3A) is a non-biased, research-based program on energy efficiency and small renewable energy technologies for the home, farm, and ranch.      

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Score: 4 out of 9
Buildings Summary List All

Missouri is a home-rule state. About 50% of the state's population is covered by the 2009, 2012, 2015, or 2018 IECC or equivalent codes. The state has completed a gap analysis and has established a stakeholder advisory group.

Residential Codes List All

Missouri is a home-rule state and thus has no mandatory state-wide codes. State-owned residential buildings must comply with latest edition of the MEC or the ASHRAE 90.2-1993 (single-family and multifamily buildings). Missouri maintains a database of building code adoptions in local jurisdictions. Approximately 50% of the state’s population is covered by the 2009, 2012, 2015, or 2018 IECC or equivalent codes.

The building codes adopted by jurisdictions throughout the state are listed on the State of Missouri Data Portal.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Commercial Code List All

Missouri is a home-rule state and thus has no mandatory state-wide codes. As of July 1, 2015, state-owned commercial buildings must comply with the 2015 IECC. Executive Order 09-18, issued in 2009, requires that “all new state construction, buildings being constructed for lease by the state, and significant renovations and replacement of energy-using equipment shall be at least as stringent as the most recent energy efficiency standards of the IECC.” In response to the Executive Order, the Office of Administration, Division of Facilities Management, Design and Construction (OA-FMDC) developed and adopted a State Building Energy Efficiency Design Standard (BEEDS). Missouri maintains a database of building code adoptions in local jurisdictions. Approximately 50% of the state’s population is covered by the 2009, 2012, 2015, or 2018 IECC or equivalent codes.

The building codes adopted by jurisdictions throughout the state are listed on the State of Missouri Data Portal.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Compliance List All
  • Baseline & Updated Compliance Studies: Missouri completed a compliance study of residential energy codes with the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance. PNNL analysis is complete for all but the Manual J measure. Based on the data gathered during the study, the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance estimated the compliance rate to be 64.6%, using REMRate software for each measure and assigning weightings through sensitivity analysis. The Division of Energy will be developing a compliance plan to submit to DOE.
  • Utility Involvement: BOC training support is included in agreements in the Spire (GR-2017-0215 and 0216) and Liberty gas rate cases (GR-2018-0013), as well as the Ameren MEEIA 3 stipulation (EO-2018-0211). After a long stakeholder process which Division of Energy participated in, Ameren Missouri committed to funding a three year building codes circuit rider in their 2018 MEEIA filing. The circuit rider will start by identifying potential opportunities and resources for improving energy code compliance. Follow-up training opportunities will be held in various locations throughout the Ameren MO territory and are meant to be flexible, addressing the specific needs of stakeholders in that area.  DE will continue to pursue a building codes circuit rider in other investor-owned utility MEEIA filings. Link.
  • Stakeholder Advisory Group: The Division of Energy encourages Missouri's energy utilities to engage in building code compliance efforts in their stakeholder advisory group meetings and in the MEEIA Statewide Advisory Group. Utility stakeholder advisory groups meet separately at least quarterly.
  • Training/Outreach: The Division of Energy has developed a resource page dedicated to building codes compliance training with assistance from MEEA: Link.

Last reviewed: July 2021

CHP Summary List All

Missouri promotes the use of CHP for critical infrastructure and renewable-fueled CHP is an eligible technology under the state's renewable energy standard. The Missouri Division of Energy (DE) is pursuing many avenues to promote CHP, including hosting two successful CHP: Resiliency for Critical Facilities summits, filing testimony that successfully improved standby service rates, developing a new customer SSR study tool, promoting CHP through the Energy Loan Program, proactively connecting health care and correctional facilities with CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships services, encouraging CHP outreach by Liberty Utilities’ local gas distribution company, the inclusion of CHP as a business custom measure in Ameren Missouri’s upcoming cycle of Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act programs, and actively participating as an engagement partner in the U.S. Department of Energy Packaged CHP Partnership. No new CHP systems were installed in 2018.

Interconnection StandardsList All

Missouri passed the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in 2008 (RSMo. 386.890), which established standards for interconnection of qualified net metering units under 100 kWh with distribution systems of electric utilities. CHP is a qualified facility if fueled by a renewable source, such as biogas, landfill gas, digester gas, etc. DE recently posted on its CHP webpage two reports entitled Missouri Standard Microgrid Interconnection Process and Missouri Microgrid Interconnection Requirements. These documents provide potential CHP customers with necessary assistance in understanding the utility requirements and a step-by-step process for addressing them.

Last Updated: August 2019

Encouraging CHP as a ResourceList All

CHP in energy efficiency standards: CHP is an eligible energy efficiency measure under the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act, which provides voluntary targets for energy savings from regulated utilities. 

Missouri's two largest independently owned utilities – Kansas City Power & Light and Ameren Missouri – include CHP as an eligible measure within their custom business energy efficiency programs. The custom business rebate program offered by Kansas City Power & Light provides up to 100 percent total project cost with a cap of $100,000 per measure. Ameren Missouri's custom business rebate program provides 50 percent of total project cost for early replacement or 100 percent of incremental cost for end of life replacement with a cap of $3 million over three years.

Last Updated: August 2019

Deployment IncentivesList All

Incentives, grants, or financing: The Missouri Department of Energy administers a revolving fund Energy Loan Program that provides low-interest energy improvement loans to K-12 public schools, public colleges and universities, local governments, local government and public-owned airport facilities – municipal, county, regional, and international – public water and wastewater treatment facilities, and hospitals. Loan financing can be used for various energy-saving investments, such as CHP, insulation, lighting systems, heating and cooling systems, pumps, motors, aerators, and renewable energy systems. In total, DE is making $5 million in funds available for these entities to complete energy efficiency and renewable energy projects throughout the state of Missouri.

CHP is also eligible for low-interest loans under the Missouri Linked Deposit Program administered by the Missouri State Treasurer’s office. Loan proceeds help grow and expand economic opportunity across Missouri. By reducing the interest rate on certain loans borrowers can use to improve their businesses, this program helps Missouri financial institutions better serve Missouri-based companies and agricultural operations. This program also provides funds for local governments to serve the interests of their constituents. Loans may be used for energy efficiency measures through building renovations, repairs and maintenance, or purchase of equipment and facilities for businesses, farming operations, and multifamily housing.

Last Updated: August 2019

Additional Supportive PoliciesList All

Missouri has a number of additional supportive policies in place for CHP.

The Department of Energy is a formal engagement partner in DOE’s Packaged CHP Accelerator Partnership and is actively encouraging CHP packagers and solution providers to serve the Missouri territory via the eCatalog. The eCatalog is a public web-based tool that enables Missouri commercial and industrial businesses that would benefit from CHP to find pre-engineered and assembled systems from proven service providers. The eCatalog will serve in a powerful way to reduce the perceived risk associated with the performance of unknown (to them) technology. 

In partnership with Spire, the Department of Energy developed and hosted two summits focused on CHP resiliency for critical facilities. In total, over 200 facility managers, energy engineers, and administrators of hospitals, universities, correctional facilities, and nursing homes were provided with an understanding of CHP technologies, complimentary CHP assessment by the Midwest CHP TAP, and direct access to vendors of CHP solutions. With a focus on health care and correctional facilities, DE is proactively reaching out to potential CHP candidates, providing technical assistance, and facilitating connecting them with TAP and following through to conclusion. 

Additionally, the Department of Energy filed testimony before the Missouri Public Service Commission on behalf of CHP in Case Nos. ER-2014-0258, ER-2014-0370, ER-2016-0179, GR-2017-0215, EO-2018-0211, ER-2018-0145/0146, GR-2017-0215, GR-2017-0216, GR-2018-0013, and GR-2019-0077. These interventions resulted in dramatically improved Standby Service Rider tariffs in terms of structure, definitions, and transparency in Ameren Missouri and Kansas City Power & Light cases, as well as the development of a spreadsheet tool that customers can use to estimate what actual utility charges may be as a result of cogeneration, outreach by Liberty Utilities’ local gas distribution company, and the inclusion of CHP as a business custom measure in Ameren Missouri’s upcoming cycle of MEEIA programs.

Missouri voters approved the state’s Renewable Energy Standard (RES) law by passage of Proposition C on November 4, 2008. The RES required Missouri’s regulated electric utilities to meet defined percentages of total retail electrical sales by renewable resources starting in 2011. Renewable-fueled CHP is an eligible technology. If the CHP system uses in-state renewable fuels, the resultant electricity is eligible for a 1.25 multiplier. Renewable fuels and distributed energy, such as CHP, are also specifically eligible for funding through the Energy Loan Program. The Wood Energy Tax Credit allows individuals or businesses processing Missouri forestry industry residues into fuels a state income tax credit of $5 per ton of processed material (e.g., wood pellets).

The Missouri Comprehensive State Energy Plan includes specific strategies (1.1.5, 1.9.4, 3.6.1, 3.6.2) to advance CHP in Missouri including equal treatment of CHP with other energy efficiency measures by regulated utilities, examining CHP potential at existing and new state facilities, developing a statewide CHP potential study, and establishing cost-based standby service rates for CHP customers. 


Last Updated: August 2019

Score: 2.5 out of 20
Utilities Summary List All

Missouri began a major transformation in the scope and role of utility-sector energy efficiency programs in 2009 when the state enacted SB 376, the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act (MEEIA). Among its many provisions, it requires Missouri’s investor-owned electric utilities to capture all cost-effective energy efficiency opportunities. After some delays in the implementation of MEEIA, one of the state’s largest utilities launched a full suite of customer programs beginning in 2012, and the state’s other largest utility filed a 3-year program plan as required by MEEIA in 2013. In early 2016, the Commission approved MEEIA Cycle 2 DSM programs and DSIMs for Ameren Missouri, KCP&L, and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company.

Prior to the developments of the past 10 years, Missouri has historically had limited energy efficiency programs for utility customers. While fundamental rules have been in place since the early 1990s for integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM), such rules had not yielded significant levels of utility spending on DSM programs. MEEIA and related commission orders have led to a rapid and large increase in utility energy efficiency programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Customer Energy Efficiency Programs List All

Passage of the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act in 2009 marked the beginning of a new era for customer energy efficiency programs in Missouri.

MEEIA Cycle 1 programs ended December 31, 2015, for Ameren Missouri (Case No. EO-2012-0142), KCP&L (Case No. EO-2014-0095), and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company (Case No. EO-2012-0009). In early 2016, the Commission approved MEEIA Cycle 2 DSM programs and DSIMs for Ameren Missouri (Case No. EO-2015-0055), KCP&L (Case No. EO-2015-0240), and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company (Case No. EO-2015-0241). All programs were implemented by the second quarter of 2016 and will all terminate during the first quarter of 2019. Utility 3-year cumulative annual energy and demand savings targets and budgets for MEEIA Cycle 2 include: 571 MWh, 167 MW and $157 million for Ameren Missouri; 198 MWh, 66 MW and $50 million for KCP&L; and 185 MWh, 106 MW and $53 million for KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Energy Efficiency as a Resource List All

The Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act of 2009 (MEEIA) established a new standard in the state for electric utility investment in demand-side management. The Act directs the Missouri Public Service Commission to permit electric corporations to implement commission-approved demand-side programs proposed pursuant to this section with a goal of achieving all cost-effective demand-side savings. The Missouri PSC also completed a revision of its IRP rules in Case No. EX-2010-0254. MEEIA rules and IRP rules both requires demand-side and supply-side measures to be evaluated on an equivalent basis.

4 CSR 240-20.094(2) – Demand Side Programs:
    (A) For demand-side programs and program plans that have a total resource cost test ratio greater than one (1), the commission shall approve demand-side programs or program plans, and annual demand and energy savings targets for each demand-side program it approves, provided it finds that the utility has met the filing and submission requirements of 4 CSR 240-20.094(4)(B) and the demand-side programs and program plans— 
1. Are consistent with a goal of achieving all cost-effective demand-side savings;
2. Have reliable evaluation, measurement, and verification plans; and
3. Are included in the electric utility’s adopted preferred resource plan or have been analyzed through the integrated resource analysis required by 4 CSR 240-22.060 to determine the impact of the demand-side programs and program plans on the net present value of revenue requirements of the electric utility.
     (B) The commission shall approve demand-side programs having a total resource cost test ratio less than one (1) for demand-side programs targeted to low-income customers or general education campaigns, if the commission determines that the utility has met the filing and submission requirements of 4 CSR 240-20.094(4)(B), the program or program plan is in the public interest, and meets the requirements stated in paragraphs (3)(A)2. and 3.

For further reading, in August 2011, as part of the State Clean Energy Resource Project, ACEEE completed the report Missouri's Energy Efficiency Potential: Opportunities for Economic Growth and Energy Sustainability.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Energy Efficiency Resource Standards List All

Missouri has only voluntary goals for electric utilities to help the Commission review progress toward an expectation that the utility can achieve a goal of all cost effective demand-side savings including: a) incremental annual energy and demand savings in 4 CSR 240-20.094(2), and b) cumulative annual energy and demand savings in 4 CSR 240-20.094(2)(B), e.g., 0.3% incremental annual energy savings in 2012, ramping up annually to 0.9% in 2015 and 1.7% in 2019 for cumulative annual energy savings of 9.9% by 2020. The voluntary goals are not mandatory, and no penalty or adverse consequence will accrue to a utility that is unable to achieve the annual energy and demand savings goals.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Utility Business Model List All

Recovery of Lost Revenues: In 2011, the Missouri Public Service Commission promulgated rules that authorize utilities to file for recovery of lost revenues (See 4 CSR 240-3.163, 4 CSR 240-3.164, 4 CSR 240-20.093, and 4 CSR 240-20.094). In 2012, the Commission approved a demand-side investment mechanism that allows Ameren Missouri to collect $80 million in an annual revenue requirement (Case No. ER-2012-0166) for recovery of demand-side programs’ costs, recovery of fixed operating costs, and a future performance incentive award based on after-the-fact verified energy savings from the programs (See Case No. EO-2012-0142). KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company (GMO) has an investment mechanism that allows collection of an $18 million annual revenue requirement for recovery of demand-side programs’ costs, recovery of fixed operating costs, and a future performance incentive award based on verified energy savings. Lost revenues are recovered through a rider or tracker mechanism until the full amount, including carrying charges, is recovered.

The rule implementing SB 376 provides for more timely cost recovery of DSM program costs by allowing adjustments to the funds collected between rate cases. Prior to SB 376, implementation program costs were recovered over a 6-year period. The SB 376 rule allows a regulated electric utility to propose performance incentives that are based on net shared benefits from the DSM programs it implements. Any utility incentive component of a DSIM shall be based on the performance of demand-side programs approved by the commission in accordance with 4 CSR 240-20.094 and shall include a methodology for determining the utility’s portion of annual net shared benefits achieved and documented through EM&V reports for approved demand-side programs. Each utility incentive component of a DSIM shall define the relationship between the utility’s portion of annual net shared benefits achieved and documented through EM&V reports, annual energy savings achieved and documented through EM&V reports as a percentage of annual energy savings targets, and annual demand savings achieved and documented through EM&V reports as a percentage of annual demand savings targets. Utilities may also propose recovery of lost revenues as measured and verified through EM&V prior to recovery on a retrospective basis.

In early 2016, the Commission approved DSM programs and demand-side programs investment mechanisms (DSIM) for Ameren Missouri (Case No. EO-2015-0055), KCP&L (Case No. EO-2015-0240), and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company (Case No. EO-2015-0241), which allow each utility to bill customers for estimated lost revenues due to the programs and to true-up the billed lost revenues as a result of energy savings determined through retrospective net-to-gross EM&V performed by each utility’s independent EM&V contractors and reviewed by the Commission’s EM&V auditor. Presently, there is no electric utility revenue decoupling in Missouri. Missouri Gas Energy has straight-fixed variable (SFV) rate design. Laclede Gas and Ameren Missouri Gas both have a weather-mitigated rate design that is similar to SFV in principle.

Performance Incentives:  The approved DSM programs and DSIMs for Ameren Missouri (Case No. EO-2015-0055), KCP&L (Case No. EO-2015-0240), and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company (Case No. EO-2015-0241) also allow each utility to receive an earning opportunity determined after the completion of the 3-year plan period and to recover any approved earnings opportunity over a two-year period. The earnings opportunity amount for each utility is based upon the achievement of each DSM program relative to established performance metrics for the DSM program, which metrics are most commonly 3-year cumulative annual energy targets and/or 3-year cumulative annual demand savings targets. Actual 3-year cumulative annual energy and/or demand savings for programs are determined through retrospective net-to-gross EM&V performed by each utility’s independent EM&V contractors and reviewed by the Commission’s EM&V auditor.

In October 2017, the Commission promulgated 4 CSR 240-20.092 Definitions for Demand-Side Programs and Demand-Side Programs Investment Mechanisms; revised 4 CSR 240-20.093 Demand-Side Programs Investment Mechanisms and 4 CSR 240-20.094 Demand-Side Programs; and rescinded 4 CSR 240-3.163 Electric Utility Demand-Side Programs Investment Mechanisms Filing and Submission Requirements (now incorporated in revised 4 CSR 240-20.093) and 4 CSR 240-3.164 Electric Utility Demand-Side Programs Filing and Submission Requirements (now incorporated in revised 4 CSR 240-20.094).

Last reviewed: July 2019

Evaluation, Measurement, & Verification List All
  • Primary cost-effectiveness test(s) used: total resource cost test  

  • Secondary cost-effectiveness test(s) used: utility cost test

The evaluation, measurement and verification of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in Missouri relies on 4 CSR 240-22.070(8), 4 CSR 240-3.163(7), and 4 CSR 240-20.093. Evaluations are performed by the utilities’ independent evaluators and are reviewed by the Missouri Public Service Commission’s EM&V auditor. Missouri uses two of the five classic benefit-cost tests identified in the California Standard Practice Manual. These are the Total Resource Cost (TRC) and utility cost test (UCT). The benefit-cost tests are required for portfolio and total program level screening.

According to the Database of State Efficiency Screening Practices (DSESP), Missouri specifies the TRC to be its primary test for decision making. Non-energy benefits can be included in the TRC if they result in avoided utility costs that may be calculated with a reasonable degree of confidence (4 CSR 240-20.092 (1) (II)). Economic well-being benefits for customers that could be included in the TRC include benefits such as increased property values, reduced operations and maintenance costs, and decreased water and sewage bills. Economic well-being benefits for the utility that can be included in the TRC include benefits such as reduced arrearage carrying costs, termination or reconnection costs, and customer collection calls and notices. Missouri’s TRC accounts for the net costs of program implementation and end-use measures for both the utility and customers. Low-income programs do not have to pass the TRC.

MEEIA Cycle 2 technical reference manuals (TRM) were approved as part of the stipulation and agreements approved for Ameren Missouri in Case No. EO-2015-0055, and for KCP&L and KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company in Case Nos. EO-2015-0240 and EO-2015-0241, respectively. A statewide TRM was created in early 2017 for gas and electric measures through a collaborative process funded by a grant awarded to the Missouri Division of Energy of the Department of Economic Development. The statewide TRM has not yet been approved by the Missouri Public Service Commission.

Natural gas utilities use all five cost effectiveness tests as governed by 4 CSR 240-22.070(8) and 4CSR 240-20.093(8).

Further information on cost-effectiveness screening practices for Missouri is available in the Database of State Efficiency Screening Practices (DSESP), a resource of the National Efficiency Screening Project (NESP).

Last Updated: August 2019

Guidelines for Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs List All

Requirements for State and Utility Support of Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs

While no legislation or regulations have been adopted to require a specific level of utility spending for low-income energy efficiency programs as reported by the PSC, the Commission has ordered a number of regulated utilities to include specified levels of funding for low-income weatherization programs in their rates. The Division of Energy requested this in cases to assure continuous funding levels rather than subjecting WAP funding to voluntary MEEIA programs.

Cost-Effectiveness Rules for Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs

Missouri specifies the total resource cost (TRC) test to be a primary test for cost effectiveness. The benefit-cost tests are required for portfolio and total program level screening, although state regulations for utilities allow for low-income programs to have a TRC ratio of less than one (4 CSR 240-20.094(2).

Section 393.1075.4 of Missouri Code also specifies that "programs targeted to low-income customers or general education campaigns do not need to meet a cost-effectiveness test, so long as the commission determines that the program or campaign is in the public interest.”

Coordination of Ratepayer-Funded Low-Income Programs with WAP Services

The Division of Energy administers the state Weatherization Assistance Program and also receives utility weatherization funds from four investor-owned utilities to administer consistent with US DOE WAP guidelines pursuant to PSC rate case orders. These funds are awarded by the Division of Energy to local weatherization agencies at the same time as state WAP funds and are subject to the same quality control and monitoring procedures. Local agencies use a combination of the utility and state WAP funds to maximize cost-effective savings.

The four utilities with weatherization funds administered by the Division of Energy are: Ameren Missouri Electric, Ameren Natural Gas, Laclede Gas, and Liberty Gas. For the remaining utilities that administer their own WAP funds/programs, the utilities have contracts with the affected local WAP agencies that are the Division of Energy’s subgrantees and administer the federal WAP funds.

Some community action agencies in the state are also working to implement Healthy Home Programs to complement low-income energy efficiency programs (CAASTLC). The Missouri Housing Development Commission implements a weatherization loan program per RSMo 215.062.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Self Direct and Opt-Out Programs List All

4 CSR 240-20.094(7)(A) states that, any customer meeting one or more of the following criteria shall be eligible to opt-out of participation in utility-offered demand-side programs: (1.) The customer has one or more accounts within the service territory of the electric utility that has a demand of 5,000 kW or more; (2.) The customer operates an interstate pipeline pumping station; or (3), The customer has accounts within the service territory of the electric utility that have, in aggregate across its accounts, a coincident demand of 2,500 kW or more in the previous 12 months, and the customer has a comprehensive demand-side or energy efficiency program and can demonstrate an achievement of savings at least equal to those expected from utility-provided demand-side programs. 

Customers opting out under the 2,500 kW/comprehensive demand-side management plan category must submit their plan to the Missouri Public Service Commission for review. Customers wishing to opt out under either of the other categories simply provide notification to their utilities that they wish to opt out. Staff of the Missouri Public Service Commission perform a desk audit of all claimed savings and may perform a field audit.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Data AccessList All

Ameren: See Case No. EO-2018-2011 - Multifamily Low-Income Program, which calls for all eligible participants to be provided with the past 12 months of energy usage and technical assistance to enable benchmarking buildings using ENERGY STAR® Portfolio Manager.

Building on Ameren Missouri's support of the City of St. Louis' "Building Energy Awareness" ordinance and the MEEIA 2016-18 benchmarking project, a new initiative will be started to allow customers to verify multiple electric accounts associated with a single facility and automatically upload the monthly aggregated usage data directly into the EPA ENERGY STAR® Portfolio Manager ("ESPM"). The first stage of this project, to be completed in 2019, is focused on (but not limited to) all single premise facilities with 4 or more electric accounts with an aggregate annual load of 48,000 kWh or greater. The objective of the second stage, to be completed in 2020, is to identify and implement a cost-effective energy tool that can effectively segment small business customers based on how effectively they use electricity. Some of the primary components will include business type, facility size, and historic electric energy usage.   

KCP&L - Case No. EO-2015-0240 Case No. EO-2015-0241 - Requires, upon request to owners (or their authorized agents) of multi-tenant buildings with five or more tenants and over 50,000 square feet, provision of aggregated whole-building electricity usage data no later than January 1, 2017. Restrictions on the frequency of aggregated whole-building electricity usage data reports may be established by KCP&L/GMO.  It is understood that the aggregated whole-building electricity usage data made available to owners (a) shall be used solely for benchmarking purposes and (b) shall not provide data identifiable to any specific KCP&L/GMO customer in the building.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Score: 3 out of 12
Transportation Summary List All

Missouri has not focused its efforts on policies to encourage efficient transportation systems, leaving significant room for growth.

Tailpipe Emission Standards List All

The Gateway Vehicle Inspection Program is part of Missouri’s continuing effort to improve air quality in the St. Louis region. The program began in 2007 and requires an emissions inspection in the St. Louis region. The program is regulated by the State Highway Patrol and Missouri Department of Natural Resources. More information can be found online at:

Last Reviewed: May 2020

Transportation System Efficiency List All

Transportation and Land Use Integration: No policy in place or proposed.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: The Missouri General Assembly approved a concurrent resolution (HCR 23) in 2011 to support complete streets. In addition, 42 local governments/agencies have adopted Complete Streets policies in Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Transportation includes the following statement in its engineering policy guide (EPG): "Safe, convenient and well-designed transit and pedestrian facilities are essential to Missouri communities. Pedestrian safety needs to be considered on every MoDOT project, especially when pedestrians are expected in close proximity to roadway traffic."

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: Missouri has a state freight plan that identifies a multimodal freight network, but it does not include freight energy or greenhouse gas reduction goals.

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Transit Funding List All

Missouri statutes (Section 226.225) provides dedicated funding for non-highway modes of transportation. A portion of motor vehicle sales taxes are deposited into the State Transportation Fund for non-highway purposes. 

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Incentives for High-Efficiency Vehicles List All

No policy in place or proposed.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to TransportationList All

Public transit access

Missouri encourages the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners (link).

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Appliance Standards
Score: 0 out of 3
Appliance Standards Summary List All

Missouri has not set appliance standards beyond those required by the federal government.

Last Reviewed: June 2019