State and Local Policy Database


State Scorecard Rank



33.5Scored out of 50Updated 12/2020
State Government
Score: 6 out of 6
State Government Summary List All

Connecticut offers several financial incentives for consumers, including rebates, loans, and PACE financing. The state government leads by example by benchmarking energy usage in state buildings, requiring efficient public buildings and vehicles, and encouraging energy savings performance contracting. Connecticut does not have a building energy-use disclosure policy. Research and development focused on energy efficiency is conducted at several institutions within the state.

Financial Incentives List All

Financial Incentive information for Connecticut is provided by the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE Connecticutand State Energy Office contacts. Information about additional incentives not present on DSIRE is listed here. In addition to the state-funded incentives on DSIRE and below, Connecticut has enabled Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing and has an active program. For additional information on PACE, visit PACENation.

Healthy Homes Initiative: The Connecticut Efficient Healthy Homes Initiative (CTEHHI) is a community-based, statewide program carried out in collaboration with the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, the United Illuminating Company and Connecticut Light and Power, and nonprofit, municipal and healthcare partners across the state. The program helps homeowners identify sources of inefficiency in their homes through comprehensive evaluations performed by energy specialists, who provide a wide range of weatherization services, as well as complete a Healthy Homes Checkup to identify any health and safety issues that may be present in the house.

CT Energy Assistance Program (CEAP): The CT Energy Assistance Program (CEAP) is designed to help offset the winter heating costs of Connecticut's lower income households, specifically those households whose incomes fall at or below 150 percent of the federal poverty guidelines as well as households with elderly, disabled and/or children under the age of six, with incomes between 150 percent and 200 percent of the federal poverty guidelines. The program includes fuel assistance and financial assistance if heat is included in rent, as well as weatherization. CEAP is currently administered by the CT Department of Social Services.

Green Buildings Tax Credit Program: The Connecticut Green Buildings Tax Credit Program was created by Connecticut General Statute 12-217mm. This program provides a tax incentive for commercial building owners and developers. To be eligible for the program, the construction, renovation, or rehabilitation projects for the commercial properties must meet or exceed the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Environmental and Energy Design (LEED) Gold Standard.  Administration of the Program is being shared by the Connecticut Office of Policy and Management (OPM) and the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP).

Multifamily Pre-Development Energy Loan Program: A simple pre-development loan that funds analysis, design and engineering of energy improvements for multifamily housing.  This loan program is designed to support property owners in identifying high-quality technical assistance providers and to fund the work needed to scope and secure financing for deeper, cost-effective energy upgrades.  Loans are unsecured with interest rates of 0% to 2.99% with a maximum term of two years. In calendar year 2016, this program financed 3 projects for $113,050 in energy efficiency and energy efficiency/renewable energy projects.

Low Income Multifamily Energy (LIME) LoanAn unsecured construction and term loan to finance implementation of energy efficiency improvements, solar and other renewable systems, and health & safety measures for multifamily residential properties. Up to 25% of loan proceeds may be used for non-energy efficiency improvements (structural, health/safety, etc.), provided there are sufficient savings to carry the costs. This program is run by Capital for Change, a community development financial institution serving statewide. In calendar year 2016, LIME loans financed 11 projects for $4,989,468 in energy efficiency and energy efficiency/renewable energy projects.

PosiGen Solar Lease and Energy Efficiency Energy Savings Agreement: In 2015, the Connecticut Green Bank launched this program in partnership with PosiGen Solar Solutions to support low to moderate income residents to install solar and energy efficiency measures using an innovative solar lease and energy savings agreement financing model. The offer is open to households regardless of income or credit, utilizing alternative underwriting approaches that examine factors such as bill payment history and bad debt and bank databases.

Multifamily Credit Enhancement Fund: This program through the Connecticut Green Bank assists people secure funding for energy projects, providing credit enhancements to reduce lender risk if necessary.  

Multifamily Catalyst Fund: This flexible $2.5 million fund is available for gap financing for energy and health and safety remediation to support affordable multifamily projects that need extra credit enhancement support and aren’t served by other CGB programs. This program is administered in partnership with the Housing Development Fund, a local CDFI, and part of a $5 million program related investment from MacArthur Foundation is used to support the program.  Financing can be secured or unsecured subordinate debt. In calendar year 2016, 1 Catalyst loan was financed for $1,300,000 in energy efficiency upgrades. In 2018, $2.7 million was provided to fund energy efficiency measures in affordable senior housing.

Commercial and Industrial Property Assessed Clean Energy (C-PACE): The C-PACE program was introduced in January of 2013 and provides 100% upfront financing for energy upgrades to commercial, industrial, non-profit, and multifamily buildings. Property owners then repay the loan as a benefit assessment charge on their property tax bill. Because the payments can be spread over a period of up to 25 years, at low interest rates (i.e., 4.50- 6.25%) owners save on energy costs immediately and for years to come. The financed improvements increase the building’s value, while preserving the building owner’s capital and credit lines for core investments.  In calendar year 2016, C-PACE financed 200 projects for $114 million in energy efficiency and energy efficiency/renewable energy financing for upgrades.

Last Updated: July 2018

Equity Metrics and Workforce DevelopmentList All

We were unable to determine if the state's energy plans or electrification strategies establish specific policies or equity-related metrics to ensure access for underserved customers or if they include specific measures to prioritize clean energy workforce development.

Last Updated: September 2020

Carbon Pricing PoliciesList All

Connecticut is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

Connecticut collects RGGI dollars that are used for energy efficiency. In general, allocations by funding are 69.5% for energy efficiency (about $128,844,107), 23% for clean energy (about $43 million, and could include some efficiency measures), and 7.5% is retained by DEEP (Conn. Agencies Reg. Section 22a-174-31(f)(6)). These figures are 10 year period to 2019. A portion of the efficiency funds are allocated to municipalities.

Connecticut is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions. This team is engaged in modeling, outreach, and program development efforts and is targeting December 2019 for announcement of potential program design.

Last Reviewed: September 2020

Building Energy Disclosure List All

In mid-2014, Connecticut’s Home Energy Solutions program implemented a pilot home energy score and labeling program.  On April 1, 2015, the HES program fully integrated energy scoring and labeling.  Now, program eligibility rules require every enrollee to participate/receive an energy score and label. 

Confidentiality laws that govern customer data prevent adoption of guidelines that require scores and labels to be publically disclosed. However, staff are required to educate participants about the value of disclosing energy scores and labels; persuading homeowners to voluntarily make their labels public. The goal is to transform the market, so that sellers and buyers use the label as a tool to guide energy efficiency improvements and real estate purchases.

In 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized Connecticut as the first state to implement the statewide adoption of home energy scores. As of Spring 2019, 33,952 DOE home energy scores have been distributed to Home Energy Solutions participants.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Public Building Requirements List All

Connecticut’s energy reduction plan requires the state to reduce agency building energy use by establishing a baseline, identify high energy users, conducting audits, and implementing cost-effective energy efficiency measures. To comply with Connecticut law, buildings must demonstrate a 20% energy reduction goal no later than January 1, 2018. The Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) has implemented the successful “Lead by Example” (LBE) initiative (CGS §16a-37u). In April 2019, Governor Lamont expanded the program via Executive Order 1. Energy savings performance contracts, bond funds, and other financing have supported projects.

Since 2007, Connecticut has allocated $88 million for energy efficiency retrofits in state buildings, which includes $20 million just released this year. As of May 1, 2018, 61 projects have been completed under the LBE Bond funded program, for a total estimated annual cost reduction of $2.64 million, an estimated annual reduction of 85.9 billion BTUs, and an average simple payback of 8.7 years. To date, nearly $842,000 in utility incentives have been leveraged under the program. To date, 73 projects have been approved with an estimated annual energy consumption savings exceeding 99.1 billion BTUs. Once these projects are complete, the total estimated energy cost reduction is $2.91 million.

In December 2016, Connecticut launched its first state Energy Savings Performance Contract Project at the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services Connecticut Valley Hospital campus. This comprehensive campus-wide project will result in guaranteed energy and maintenance savings of $31.0 million over the 15-year performance period. Currently in the construction phase, it has already produced savings of 6,688mmBtu, over $68K, and 708 tons of greenhouse gas emissions.

High Performance State Buildings: In 2006, High Performance State Buildings were mandated through General Statutes Section 16a-38k-1 to 16a-38k-7, creating an above code building standard for all State-funded construction projects. In 2007, Governor M. Jodi Rell signed HB 7432, which broadened and increased the state's green buildings requirement. Starting January 1, 2008, no exemptions to the energy efficiency rules for state facilities exist, except to those state facilities where at least $2 million of the funding comes from the state. The bill also extended energy efficiency requirements to school renovations and construction where at least $2 million is provided in state funding. All of these facilities must exceed the current building code energy efficiency standards by at least 21%. In 2019, Connecticut expanded its High Performance Building Performance Standard to establish state building construction standards by January 1, 2020, that incorporate a nationally-recognized model for sustainable construction codes of high performance green buildings.

Benchmarking: In 2014, DEEP was required to benchmark energy and water consumption of state owned and operated non-residential/residential buildings with a gross floor area of 10,000 square feet or greater using the U.S. EPA’s Energy Star Portfolio Manager. DEEP must make this data public (CGS §16a-37t). In addition, the gas and electric utilities are required to configure the most recent 36 months of nonresidential energy consumption data for uploading into EPA’s Energy Star Portfolio Manager (CSG §16-245ii). Subsequently, allowing the public to track state energy data. The electric utilities are sending energy consumption data electronically to DEEP, which represents the majority of energy accounts supplying state owned and leased buildings. To date, DEEP staff have benchmarked 42% of state buildings, or 100% of state government buildings that have participated in bond-funded programs, including 72 projects across 294 buildings or 66.9 million total square feet. In 2017 Connecticut purchased tool called EnergyCAP to assist with the state's Building Energy Evaluation System by enabling more precise and up-to-date benchmarking data. Additionally, Connecticut utilities have launched the Automated Data Transfer Project to benchmark municipal, board of education, houses of worship, and other local business buildings.

The Institute for Sustainable Energy (ISE) has recently formalized benchmarking assistance protocol with the formation of a “Benchmarking Help Desk,” which gives towns, state agencies and schools a resource for questions related to energy benchmarking and the use of ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager. ISE provides one-on-one or group training on the use of Portfolio Manager for those interested in the upkeep of their portfolios, with personalized instruction based on the needs of the interested party. ISE has benchmarked over 900 buildings in Connecticut and has provided technical assistance to DEEP, the Technical High School System (CTHSS), the Board of Regents, St. Joseph's Residence - Enfield, the Alzheimer's Resource Center, Middlesex Community College, several towns, GT Green Leaf Schools, and over 100 municipal and state building managers enrolled in the GPRO courses. As a result of the benchmarking and engagement from ISE, CTHSS implemented LED lighting upgrades through the utility-run Small Business Energy Advantage Program and received a 2016 CT Green-Circle Sustainability Award for its energy saving successes.

Connecticut’s Small Business Energy Advantage Program (SBEA), one of the state’s LBE programs, targets small businesses, and state agencies. The program provides comprehensive energy- and cost-savings by means of a turnkey solution for customers who typically do not have in-house energy management resources. In 2016, 1800 projects had been completed under the SBEA program, for a total estimated annual cost reduction of $6.0 million, a lifetime cost reduction of $75.0 million, and a total estimated annual reduction of 42.7 million kWh (533.4 million LT kWh). In 2016, 20,640 tons of CO2 emissions were reduced as well. As of March 2018, 84 “electric” state agency projects had been completed under the SBEA program. The total estimated annual reduction is 4.6 million kWh, with an average payback on the net cost to state agencies of 3.37 years. Under this program, $1.8 million in electric CEEF incentives has been leveraged. To date, over 140 state agency SBEA projects have been approved with an estimated annual reduction of 7.0 million Kwh and $1million in cost reductions.

In addition, through the state's Demand Reduction Program, Connecticut has worked with Eversource to develop a pilot to reduce electric demand and costs in state and other buildings. Enersource and Artisenergy have conducted preliminary energy audits to determine which buildings would be the best candidates for this project.

As a result of these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized Energize Connecticut Partners as the 2017 Energy Star Partner of the Year for Energy Efficiency Program Delivery.

Last Reviewed: September 2020

Fleets List All

CT Statute CGS 4a-67d (modified by PA 04-231) requires that cars and light-duty trucks purchased by the state must have an average EPA estimated fuel economy of at least 40 mpg. Purchases must comply with EPAct's state fleet acquisition requirements and must obtain the best achievable fuel economy per pound of carbon dioxide emitted in their vehicle class.

Last Reviewed: September 2020

Energy Savings Performance Contracting List All

Connecticut General Statute § 16a-37u (b) required the Commissioner of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) to establish an energy management plan applicable to state-owned and leased buildings that maximizes energy efficiency. As part of the plan, the law required the state to reduce energy consumption in state buildings by 20% by 2018. To reach these goals, DEEP established numerous programs including the Energy Savings Performance Contracting Program.

Effective in 2011, Connecticut General Statute § 16a-37x required the state to create a new standardized Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) Program for use by state agencies and municipalities. The program’s purpose was to assist state and municipal governments in implementing a portfolio of comprehensive energy savings measures with no upfront capital. The costs of the energy retrofits are paid for by future guaranteed savings from utility and maintenance budgets. The new program, replaces the program ESPC program that existed prior to 2011. 

The State’s ESPC Program includes a number of tools that will minimize risk and simplify development and implementation of performance contracting: 1) a set of standardized contract documents, 2) a list of twelve pre-qualified Qualified Energy Services Providers, 3) a Program Manager, hired with Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund dollars, 4) a pool of technical support providers to support individual projects (up to $10,000 in services per project, from CEEF funds), and 5) staff support at Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority to assist with project financing. All elements of the standardized ESPC program will be available to municipalities, including pre-approved contract documents, list of pre-qualified Energy Service Companies (ESCOs), and technical assistance. Performance contracts energy-savings measures will be leveraged through incentives from the CT Energy Efficiency Fund.

In 2016, the Connecticut General Assembly passed SB 334 to revise the meaning of "cost effective" as applied to energy savings performance contracting, requiring that project savings outweigh project costs, including, but not limited to, financing. The bill extends the payback period from 15 to 20 years and prohibits the payback period for each measure to go beyond the measure's functional life. The bill also removes outdated requirements around lifecycle cost analysis, energy efficiency in state facilities, product standards, and others. 

There are currently 46 active ESPC projects in state and University of Connecticut buildings.

Last Reviewed: September 2020

Research & Development List All

The University of Connecticut’s Center for Clean Energy Engineering (C2E2), founded in 2009, serves as a nexus for activities involving fundamental and applied research in clean and efficient energy systems as well as training of 21st century scientists and engineers. Advanced energy conversion technologies, fuels and fuel processing, energy storage, power management and smart grid, and conservation of natural resources with a focus on water are all part of the Center’s larger research and educational portfolio. The center’s efforts are geared toward catalyzing the transformation of science-to-systems for a global “Sustainable Energy Economy” through academic research and industrial development, systems engineering, prototype development and demonstration.  C2E2 also provides cost-effective solutions to current and emerging technologies.  The center employs a portfolio of multidisciplinary faculty through the Sustainable Energy Initiative.

The Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) focuses on initiatives in several areas of energy efficiency, including advanced manufacturing technologies and strategies for improving efficiency. CCAT assists DEEP with several programs, including an energy-efficient business program, the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, the Rural Energy Assurance Program, and several others.

The Test Bed Program is administered by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection’s Bureau of Energy and Technology Policy, as required by Connecticut law (C.G.S. 16a-4d). The Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Test Bed Program (Test Bed Program) provides an opportunity for a technology, product or process that promotes energy conservation, energy efficiency or renewable energy technology, to be used on a limited trial basis in the operations of a State agency or facility. Since May 2015, the Test Bed Program has received applications for two products: a reflector lens by Energy Savings Lights, LLC and an intelligent boiler control unit by Fireye Inc.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Score: 6.5 out of 9
Buildings Summary List All

Residential and commercial buildings must currently comply with the 2015 IECC, however, the CT Codes and Standards Committee/Dept of Administrative Services is reviewing the 2021 IECC with the goal of adopting the new state building code in October 2022. The state has completed a variety of compliance activities, and utilities support code compliance efforts.

Last reviewed: August 2021

Residential Codes List All

The Connecticut Department of Administrative Service adopted the 2015 IECC for residential and commercial construction effective October 1, 2018.  However, the CT Codes and Standards Committee is reviewing the 2021 IECC with the goal of adopting the new state building code in October 2022 (Link).  

Details regarding the state's code adoption process and schedule can be found on its Code Adoption Webpage. In addition, Connecticut Law now provides the State Building Inspector and Code Committee a process to adopt and implement the latest IECC during the same year.  

Last reviewed: August 2021

Commercial Code List All

The Connecticut Department of Administrative Service adopted the 2015 IECC for residential and commercial construction effective October 1, 2018.  However, the CT Codes and Standards Committee is reviewing the 2021 IECC with the goal of adopting the new state building code in October 2022 (Link). 

Details regarding the state's code adoption process and schedule can be found on its Code Adoption Webpage. In addition, Connecticut Law now provides the State Building Inspector and Code Committee a process to adopt and implement the latest IECC during the same year.  

Last reviewed: August 2021

Compliance List All
  • Gap Analysis/Strategic Compliance Plan: A proposal to conduct third party plan review and site studies has been approved by DEEP in its 2013-2015 C&LM draft decision. The Department of Construction Services and a committee that engages the Office of Construction Services, DEEP, the utility representatives, the Institute for Sustainable Energy and Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP) is charged with the development and oversight of this effort. This process, once adopted, will be repeated annually through 2017 to determine additional training needs of local code officials, licensed inspectors, building designers and the trades, as well as the annual compliance rate for that year.
  • Baseline & Updated Compliance Studies: In 2018, NMR Group completed a code compliance study of single-family homes in Connecticut that were built at the end of the 2009 IECC cycle, including an assessment of gross potential savings available from increasing compliance with both the 2009 IECC and the 2012 IECC-CT (Link). The study also compares homes to the amended version of the 2012 IECC. The 2012 IECC-CT results represent minimum compliance rates (a floor) and maximum potential savings (a ceiling) as the homes used for this assessment were built prior to the adoption of the 2012 IECC-CT (under the 2009 IECC). In November 2015, DNV-GL submitted its C19-C&I Connecticut New Construction Baseline and Code Compliance Study to the Energy Efficiency Board. Compliance with energy efficiency code requirements for commercial and industrial new construction buildings permitted between 2010 and 2013 was estimated at 75% of the population. NMR has completed its 2016/2017 process evaluation of the Residential New Construction program.  As part of that study, NMR will conduct a baseline study.  Although these findings have not been reported to date, they will be provided in a separate report. Additionally, NEEP completed a residential energy code compliance study in 2019/2020.
  • Utility Involvement: Utilities are involved in strategic planning and coordination, and utility-sponsored training. Regulatory guidelines have been established requiring significant utility involvement in supporting building energy code compliance. The Connecticut General Statute (16-245m) requires the utilities to submit a three-year Conservation and Management Plan.  The plan describes the utilities efforts in building energy code compliance-which the Department approves. Once the Department approves the plan, the companies are required to abide to it.
  • Stakeholder Advisory Group: A committee that includes the Office of Construction Services, DEEP, the utility representatives, the Institute for Sustainable energy and Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP) meets regularly to review progress on the Gap Analysis and the Strategic Compliance Plan. The State of Connecticut is cooperating with Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP) to adopt and implement the 2009 IECC. NEEP has developed a set of resources and model policy to assist with implementation. NEEP is an active member of BCAP/OCEAN.
  • Training/Outreach: The Department of Construction Services’ Office of Education and Data Management consistently offers energy code trainings. Recently the utilities have assumed responsibility for DEEP’s previous role of sponsoring code compliance training and outreach activities (GPRO and BOC training).  Please see the recent activities focused on these efforts below. Certification Requirements: Connecticut also requires building code officials to be licensed, including training and exams related to the ICC building codes. The Office of Education and Data Management (OEDM) performs all credentialing responsibilities - including training, testing and records maintenance - for the Office of the State Building Inspector (OSBI) and the Office of State Fire Marshal (OSFM).  As such, OEDM is responsible for training and accrediting Building Code Enforcement and Fire Officials, as well as providing code-related instruction to individuals in the allied trade and design professions.
  • Certification Requirements: Connecticut also requires building code officials to be licensed, including training and exams related to the ICC building codes. The Office of Education and Data Management (OEDM) performs all credentialing responsibilities - including training, testing and records maintenance - for the Office of the State Building Inspector (OSBI) and the Office of State Fire Marshal (OSFM).  As such, OEDM is responsible for training and accrediting Building Code Enforcement and Fire Officials, as well as providing code-related instruction to individuals in the allied trade and design professions.

Last reviewed: August 2021

CHP Summary List All

The state has pursued a variety of policies to encourage CHP development, including establishing interconnection standards and financing programs. Two new CHP systems came online in Connecticut in 2018.

Interconnection StandardsList All

Policy: Connecticut General Statute § 16-243a

Description: Approved in 2007, Connecticut’s interconnection standard applies to distributed generation, including CHP, up to 20MW in size. This standard pertains to the two investor-owned utilities in the state, and separates distributed generation into three distinct tiers based upon system size. These tiers mirror those of FERC’s interconnection standards, upon which Connecticut’s standards are closely based.

Connecticut's guidelines include a standard interconnection agreement and application fees that vary by system type. However, they are stricter than FERC's standards and differ in several significant ways, including the requirement of an external disconnect switch and an interconnection transformer, the requirement for customers to indemnify their utility against "all causes of action," and the requirement to maintain liability insurance in specified amounts based on the system's capacity.

Last Updated: July 2018

Encouraging CHP as a ResourceList All

CHP in energy efficiency standards: Connecticut’s energy efficiency targets are administered as part of its Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), initiated in 1998 by Connecticut General Statute § 16-245a et seq. In 2005, the state expanded its RPS to include Class III resources such as energy efficiency and CHP, which are supposed to comprise 4% of the state’s total output. To qualify as a Class III resource, CHP must have a minimum operating efficiency of at least 50%.

In 2013, the statute was revised with the passage of H.B. 6360. Among other things, this bill makes CHP more competitive within the portfolio standard by eliminating utilities' conservation savings from the tier of resource applicable to CHP.

Last Updated: July 2018

Deployment IncentivesList All

Incentives, grants, or financing:  A state loan program provides long-term financing options for the installation of customer-side distributed resources, including CHP systems larger than 50 kW.

Net metering: Connecticut’s net metering regulation is only applicable to renewable-powered systems up to 2MW in size.

Last Updated: July 2018

Additional Supportive PoliciesList All

Some additional supportive policies exist to encourage CHP in Connecticut. In 2011, the state established streamlined air permitting procedures that simplify the permitting process for some CHP systems. The Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) developed a permit-by-rule (PBR) that applies to CHP systems. The PBR, which expedites permit processing time that would otherwise take about six months, became effective in 2013.

With the passage of Public Act No. 12-148 in 2012, a Microgrid Grant and Loan Pilot Program was established to support local distributed energy generation at critical facilities in the state. The program considers applications requesting financial support for the development of microgrids that are powered by CHP and other renewable energy sources. The state also passed legislation in 2016 to expand the DEEP microgrid program funding for additional types of costs associated with microgrids. Grants and loans can now be used to cover costs associated with distributed generation infrastructure.

Renewable-fueled CHP systems are eligible within the Connecticut Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and can be used to meet the state’s renewable targets. Also, in 2015, the Connecticut General Assembly passed Public Act 15-152 extending the state's anaerobic digester pilot program by two years, until 2017. The program provides loans, grants, or PPAs for anaerobic digestion facilities to generate electricity and heat.

In 2017, Connecticut enacted law PA 17-144, which allows electric distribution companies to provide financial incentives for the installation of fuel cell-powered combined heat and power systems.

Connecticut CHP systems can also qualify for a discounted natural gas rate. 

Last Updated: July 2018

Score: 12.5 out of 20
Utilities Summary List All

Connecticut is a leading state in delivering nationally-recognized and award-winning energy efficiency programs to all customer sectors. In 1998, the state created a long-term funding mechanism and required electric utilities to provide energy efficiency programs. Since 2005, the natural gas utilities have also offered significant energy and cost-saving programs to customer sectors statewide.

The Connecticut Energy Efficiency Board’s (EEB) 15 appointed members are drawn from private and public entities and represent a cross section of energy consumers, including: residents, business, non-profits, communities, and municipalities. The EEB is responsible for approving the electric and natural gas distribution companies’ three-year plans. The state’s energy efficiency programs and services, which are marketed under the statewide brand—Energize ConnecticutSM, are provided by Eversource, United Illuminating, Connecticut Natural Gas, and Southern Connecticut Gas. The utilities administer the programs and utilize a robust, highly-skilled green workforce to implement them.

In 2007, the Connecticut legislature enacted Public Act 07-242, An Act Concerning Electricity and Energy Efficiency, which called for the utilities to pursue “all cost-effective energy efficiency” as their first priority resource. Additionally, the Act required the utilities to establish new regulatory mechanisms, such as electric and natural gas decoupling. This legislation envisioned energy efficiency as the focal point for statewide energy policy. In 2011, Public Act 11-80, An Act Concerning the Establishment of the Department of Energy Environmental Protection and Planning for Connecticut’s Energy Future, created the Department of Energy & Environmental Protection (DEEP), laid the groundwork for pursuing all cost-effective energy efficiency, and required DEEP to prepare a Comprehensive Energy Strategy for Connecticut every three years. The latest Comprehensive Energy Strategy was released in 2018.

Connecticut’s 2019-2021 Conservation & Load Management Plan (2019-2021 Plan) is a $693 million investment in making Connecticut more energy efficient. This investment will result in significant energy and cost savings for customers, improved productivity in business operations, a healthier indoor environment for Connecticut residents and businesses, reduced air pollution emissions (e.g., nitrous and sulfur oxides, and carbon dioxide), and the development of a highly-skilled green workforce in the state. The 2019-2021 Plan will result in electric lifetime savings of 8.94 billion kilowatt-hours, natural gas lifetime savings of 29 billion cubic feet of natural gas, oil lifetime savings of 80.2 million gallons, propane lifetime savings of 16.2 million gallons of propane, and 120,000 kilowatts of peak demand reduction.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last updated: July 2019

Customer Energy Efficiency Programs List All

Connecticut’s electric distribution utilities, natural gas companies, and municipal electric utilities are required by Connecticut statutes to provide conservation and load management programs for all customer sectors. The current three-year plan (2019-2021 Plan) was reviewed and approved by DEEP and the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA). Per statutory requirements of Public Act 18-50, An Act Concerning Connecticut’s Energy Future and policy guidance, the 2019-2021 Plan’s primary goal is to “implement cost-effective energy conservation programs, demand management, and market transformation initiatives.”

The continuity of Connecticut’s success in delivering high-quality Residential and Commercial and Industrial (C&I) energy efficiency programs and services is directly attributable to the determined efforts of the state’s utilities, the EEB, DEEP, and a multitude of stakeholders. The 2019-2021 Plan covers years 20, 21, and 22 of electric conservation programs since the electric restructuring Public Act 98-28, An Act Concerning Energy Independence, was passed, and covers years 13, 14, and 15 of natural gas efficiency programs since the passage of Public Act 05-01, An Act Concerning Energy Independence.

The 2019-2021 Plan’s programs and initiatives are designed to maintain Connecticut’s leadership in energy efficiency and demand reduction programs. The programs and incentives are designed to reflect market trends, new federal regulations and policies, emerging technologies, and evaluation results of its current programs. These considerations lead Connecticut’s energy efficiency programs toward greater efficacy while driving energy savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and increased economic benefits. The 2019-2021 Plan’s programs and initiatives are designed to deliver 1.6 annual MMBtu savings, or equivalent megawatt-hours, for all fuels combined by 2020.

Top 2019-2021 Plan priorities for Connecticut’s programs include supporting the strategic adoption of heat pump technologies, offering an ENERGY STAR® Retail Products Platform, shifting rebates upstream to distributors to drive energy efficiency in specific customer sectors, supporting Strategic Energy Management (SEM)/ISO 50001 and promoting a SEM cohort approach, introducing new recapitalization strategies for the Small Business Energy Advantage program to leverage energy efficiency funds with private capital, continuing to target C&I market segments to deliver tailored measures and custom approaches, and to evaluate and implement demand reduction strategies for residential and C&I customers.

In 2019, the three primary funding sources for Connecticut’s energy efficiency programs are: (1) a three-mill systems benefit charge on customer electric bills, (2) A Conservation Adjustment Mechanism (CAM) less gross receipts tax (GRT) assessed on customer electric bills, and (3) contributions from natural gas customers (on firm rates) through the natural gas CAM. Starting in 2020, as directed by Public Act 18-50, the first two primary funding sources listed above will combine into one six-mill CAM for electric customers of Eversource and United Illuminating. Additional funding sources for the 2019-2021 Plan’s programs include the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a Northeast carbon trade system, and revenues from the Connecticut electric utilities’ participation in the Independent System Operator-New England’s Forward Capacity Market.

The Companies maintain a statewide Energy Efficiency Dashboard to provide customers with monthly-updated data regarding program performance, including metrics for the Companies’ Residential and C&I programs, as well as for residential financing programs.

The most recent budgets for energy efficiency programs and electricity and natural gas savings can be found in the State Spending and Savings Tables.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Energy Efficiency as a Resource List All

Prior to passage of Public Act 07-242, An Act Concerning Electricity and Energy Efficiency, utilities were not required to submit integrated resource plans in Connecticut’s restructured utility markets. After passage of Public Act 07-242, electric distribution companies were required to review the state’s energy and capacity resource assessment, and to develop a comprehensive plan for the procurement of energy resources. The Act requires resource selection and procurement to be performed so as to minimize the costs and to maximize consumer benefits consistent with the state’s environmental goals. The distribution companies must consider a full array of supply and demand resources and submit annual assessments of energy and capacity requirements for the next three, five, and 10 years. Additionally, the utilities must submit plans to “eliminate growth in electric demand” and to achieve other demand-side and environmental objectives.

Public Act 11-80 requires that Connecticut’s energy needs “shall be met first through all available energy efficiency and demand reduction resources that are cost-effective, reliable, and feasible. Connecticut’s utilities prepare three-year plans for energy efficiency programs that establish annual budgets, energy-saving goals, and performance metrics. The utilities provide annual updates to these three-year plans to align energy efficiency programs that reflect market trends, new federal regulations and policies, emerging technologies, and evaluation results of its current programs.

The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection(DEEP) has initiated a process to refresh the integrated resource plan for 2020.  A vendor has been selected and DEEP is anticipating to have final results by June 2020.

Last reviewed: June 2020

Energy Efficiency Resource Standards List All

Summary: Requirement for acquisition of all cost-effective efficiency resources, equivalent to yearly incremental electricity savings targets of ~1.11% and natural gas savings of 0.59% through 2021. 

Established by Public Act 98-28, An Act Concerning Energy Independence, the state’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires that electricity providers and wholesale suppliers obtain 27% of their retail load from renewable energy and energy efficiency by 2020. In 2011, Public Act 11-80,  An Act Concerning the Establishment of the Department of Energy Environmental Protection and Planning for Connecticut’s Energy Future, created DEEP and laid the groundwork for pursuing all cost-effective energy efficiency across the state. Public Act 11-80 also required DEEP to issue a new and updated Comprehensive Energy Strategy plan for Connecticut every three years, which considers all energy needs of the state, including but not limited to: electricity, cooling, heating, and transportation. In February 2018,  DEEP issued the 2018 Comprehensive Energy Strategy to advance Connecticut's goal of creating a cheaper, cleaner, more reliable energy future for all the state's residents and businesses.

Through the 2019-2021 Conservation & Load Management Plan’s (2019-2021 Plan) energy efficiency programs, the utilities will help DEEP meet two strategies focused on energy efficiency in buildings: (1) ensure sustainable and equitable funding for efficiency, and (2) advance market transformation of the energy efficiency industry.  

For the 2019-2021 Plan, Connecticut’s utilities expect to achieve 843 annual GWH savings (1.11% of sales) and 2,073 annual MMcf savings (0.59% of sales), which is enough to power 100,000 homes for one year. These projected energy savings resulting from the 2019-2021 Plan’s programs shows how energy efficiency is a valuable resource for the state and will “flatten” electricity consumption in Connecticut over the next few years.

Last reviewed: August 2019

Utility Business Model List All

Public Act 07-242, An Act Concerning Electricity and Energy Efficiency, required PURA to order the state’s electric and natural gas distribution companies to decouple distribution revenues from the volume of natural gas or electricity sales. In 2013, Public Act 13-298, An Act Concerning Implementation of Connecticut’s Comprehensive Energy Strategy and Various Revisions to the Energy Statutes, adopted the requirement (again) of decoupling for all electric distribution companies.

Currently, United Illuminating uses a full decoupling mechanism, adjusted annually (see Docket No. 08-07-04RE03 and 13-01-19). Public Act 13-298 approved lost-based revenue recovery via federally mandated congestion charges (FMCCs), absent decoupling for Eversource (f/k/a Connecticut Light & Power). In 2015, Eversource’s rate case was approved for full decoupling.  

Connecticut’s natural gas companies also recover lost-based revenues. Connecticut Natural Gas has been decoupled since 2014, and in the next LDC rate case, Eversource (f/k/a Yankee Gas Services) will also file for decoupling. Southern Connecticut Gas currently recovers lost margins as a component of the Conservation Adjustment Mechanism (CAM) that is designed to recover distribution revenues lost due to energy efficiency program activities (avoided usage).

For managing Connecticut’s energy efficiency programs and budgets, the electric and natural gas distribution companies earn an annual performance target incentive that is tied to program specific-oriented metrics, including but not limited to energy savings and net economic benefits. Performance management incentives are typically based on a percentage of energy efficiency program costs and this percentage varies dependent on if goals and/or targets are met or exceeded. For the 2019-2021 Plan, the utilities have a base target 4.5% performance management incentive at 100% of goal for all three program years. During the 2019-2021 Plan, the utilities also plan to introduce an MMBtu-based or a greenhouse gas emissions reductions-based metric for tracking purposes.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Evaluation, Measurement, & Verification List All
  • Primary cost-effectiveness test(s) used: utility cost test and the modified utility cost test

  • Secondary cost-effectiveness test(s) used: total resource cost

In Connecticut, the Utility Cost Test (or Modified Utility Cost Test for electric programs that save fossil fuels) is considered to be the primary test. The Total Resource Cost Test is used as a secondary test to provide a broader perspective of program performance. In addition to these three B/C tests, the electric and natural gas distribution companies use nominal avoided costs and a nominal discount rate of 5.5% for all B/C testing (per prior DEEP feedback). These B/C tests are required for overall portfolio and total program level screening. An exception is made for low-income programs, for which the Total Resource Cost Test is used in order to account for benefits beyond what the Utility Cost Test considers.

Further information on cost-effectiveness screening practices for Connecticut is available in the Database of State Efficiency Screening Practices (DSEP), a resource of the National Efficiency Screening Project. Further information on health and environmental benefits is available in ACEEE’s Overview of State Approaches to Account for Health and Environmental Benefits of Energy Efficiency.

Independent evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) has been an integral component of Connecticut’s energy efficiency programs since their inception. Programs are evaluated on an ongoing basis through an independent process overseen and administered by the Energy Efficiency Board, per Public Act 11-80, An Act Concerning the Establishment of the Department of Energy Environmental Protection and Planning for Connecticut’s Energy Future. The Act established formal rules and procedures for evaluation and an Evaluation Rules and Roadmap. Statewide evaluations of energy efficiency programs are conducted. 

Last reviewed: July 2019

Guidelines for Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs List All

Requirements for State and Utility Support of Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs

Connecticut’s Home Energy Solutions (HES)-Income Eligible program delivers valuable energy efficiency services to low-income customers (60% of state median income). Through home performance assessment and direct install services, this energy solution helps reduce the energy costs burden for low-income customers. For the 2019-2021 Plan, the HES-Income Eligible program and its sister solution HES will serve as the primary drivers of the utilities’ support in helping the State of Connecticut meet its legislative goal of weatherizing 80% of Connecticut’s existing homes by 2030. This goal was established by Public Act 11-80, Section 33, An Act Concerning the Establishment of the Department of Energy Environmental Protection and Planning for Connecticut’s Energy Future.

Connecticut’s utilities are required to allocate their limited-income budgets in parity with the revenues that are expected to be collected from that sector. As part of their Performance Management Incentive (PMI) calculation, the electric and natural gas utilities are required to spend a percentage of the HES-Income Eligible program budget. Additionally, the HES-Income Eligible program has electric, natural gas, oil, and propane savings metrics that must be met prior to the utilities receiving their PMI.

Connecticut’s Department of Economic and Community Development manages the Energy Conservation Loan (ECL) program that assists low- and moderate-income households (based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s standard of 200% of area median income) in receiving zero/low-interest financing to make energy efficiency improvements. The HES-Income Eligible program also assists customers in remediating some health and safety issues that are barriers to energy efficiency, including: performing a clean, tune, and test of a home’s HVAC system, making furnace repairs, fixing gas (natural gas and propane) leaks on the customer side, and performing domestic hot water tune-ups. 

Cost-Effectiveness Rules for Low-Income Energy Efficiency Programs

Connecticut relies on the Total Resource Cost test as its primary test for the HES-Income Eligible program. Connecticut regulators have repeatedly approved non-cost-effective low-income programs; however, no explicit adjustments or exceptions to general cost-effectiveness rules are in place for the HES-Income Eligible program. More information regarding B/C testing of efficiency programs in Connecticut can be found in Chapter 5 of the 2019-2021 Plan.

Conn. Gen. Stat. §16-24a required DEEP to conduct a proceeding regarding the development of a Low Income Discount Rate (LIDR) for natural gas and electric customers. In July 2013, the Bureau of Energy and Technology Policy (BETP) conducted the "Low Income Discount Rate Review" and submitted its report to PURA with the following recommendation: "currently available programs already provide benefits equal to, or greater than, the value of benefits low-income households would receive through a 10% low-income discount rate." In November 2013, PURA accepted the recommendation and determined that the existing rate assistance and energy efficiency programs are more beneficial to Connecticut's low-income residents than replacing them with a low-income discount rate.

Coordination of Ratepayer-Funded Low-Income Programs with WAP Services

For the 2019-2021 Plan, Connecticut’s utilities will continue their long-term partnership with the Community Action Agencies (CAAs) to assist in cost sharing for US Department of Energy-funded Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) projects. DEEP administers Connecticut WAP projects through one CAA administrator. The target market for WAP are single-family properties and it is designed to help income-eligible customers minimize their energy burden through retrofits and home improvement measures. The utilities cost share some energy efficiency measures for WAP projects, including: ductless heat pumps, domestic hot water measures, administrative fees, heating system replacements, insulation, LED bulbs and fixtures, and windows. 

Under the Energy Affordability Docket, the Energy Efficiency Group, supports low-income programs, such as NU-Start and Matching Payment Plans.  This way as customers are having difficulty paying their energy bills, they can work with the Energy Efficiency team to reduce their bills.

Last reviewed: June 2020

Self Direct and Opt-Out Programs List All

Connecticut does not allow for large C&I customers to self-direct the funds they would have paid for energy efficiency, or to opt-out entirely.

Since 2011, Connecticut has managed a Behavioral-Based Strategies program for residential customers. The program’s objective is to make customers aware of how much energy they consume and to empower them to adopt energy-efficient technologies and behaviors. The program’s primary information channel to residential customers is a behavioral-based communication, printed or electronic, that details how much energy an individual customer consumes, how they compare to other customers, and what steps they can take to become more energy efficient. Since its inception, the program has had an opt-out option for customers who do not wish to participate. 

Last reviewed: June 2020

Data AccessList All

Guidelines for Third Party Access

Under Gen. Stats. §16-245o(d) and Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies § 16-244h-4, energy use data will be released to third parties only after written approval of the customer. 

Provision of Energy Use Data

Per Public Act No. 11-80, Sec. 125 & 126, each electric distribution, electric, and gas company shall make records of the energy consumption data of all non-residential buildings, as well as aggregate town customer usage information and make available to the public, while preserving the confidentiality of individual customers. 

Energy Use Data Availability

Connecticut’s Energy Efficiency Dashboard was developed in 2013 as an online resource that provides users with “real-time” data (updated monthly) regarding the state’s energy efficiency programs, their performance, and metrics. The purpose of the of the Dashboard is to provide regulators, legislators, advisors, and the general public a snapshot report regarding how well Connecticut’s energy efficiency programs are operating. Additionally in 2013, Connecticut created a Clean Energy Communities Dashboard that tracks the energy consumption (electric and natural gas only) of households and businesses in all of Connecticut’s 169 towns and cities. The individual town pages also detail the participation of Connecticut’s households and businesses in energy efficiency programs, as well as Residential Rebates redeemed.

The design and implementation of digital Customer Engagement Platforms were completed by both Eversource, United Illuminating, Connecticut Natural Gas, and Southern Connecticut Gas during the 2016-2018 Conservation & Load Management Plan. Each of the utilities’ customer engagement platforms allow customers to utilize the US Department of Energy’s Green Button to download their electric usage data. Additionally, customers can manually input other fuel type data to calculate their entire energy usage data. This energy data is compiled by the utilities to provide targeted energy-saving opportunities and give insightful, personalized recommendations to customers.

Last reviewed: July 2019

Score: 8.5 out of 12
Transportation Summary List All

Connecticut's efficient transportation policies include tailpipe emissions standards, complete streets legislation, and incentives for high efficiency vehicles. Connecticut does not have targets to reduce vehicle miles traveled. 

Tailpipe Emission Standards List All

Connecticut adopted California’s Low-Emission Vehicle Program in 2005, committing to reducing criteria and greenhouse gas emissions for new vehicles through 2025. The state has also adopted California’s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which requires increasing production of plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel-cell vehicles from 2018 to 2025 with the goal of commercializing advanced vehicle technologies that will reduce emissions and improve energy diversification in the transportation sector.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Transportation System Efficiency List All

Transportation and Land use Integration: Connecticut’s Conservation and Development plan outlines six growth management principles that aim to coordinate future development and to provide valuable planning resources for municipalities across the state. These six principles outline, among other considerations, the need to redevelop and revitalize areas with existing infrastructure and to concentrate development around transportation hubs and corridors.

In 2008, the state senate passed SB 39, calling for the establishment of a Responsible Growth Cabinet to review “regionally significant projects” and to ensure that all future development occurs according to the six growth management principles.

VMT Targets: No policy in place or proposed.

Complete Streets: In 2009, the state adopted a complete streets policy (Public Act 09-154) to ensure that all road projects accommodate all users.

FAST Freight Plans and Goals: In 2017, the state finalized its freight plan to comply with the FAST Act, which refers to its capital investments for multi-modal freight. 

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Transit Funding List All

No policy in place or proposed.

Last Updated: July 2018

Incentives for High-Efficiency Vehicles List All

Connecticut’s Hydrogen and Electric Automobile Purchase Rebate Program provides as much as $5,000 towards the incremental cost of the purchase of a hydrogen fuel cell electric (FCEV), battery electric vehicle (BEV), or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Rebates are calculated based on the U.S. EPA rated electric range of the vehicle. Fuel cell electric vehicles earns $5,000, BEVs with an EPA rated electric range of 200 miles or greater are eligible for a rebate of $2,000. For BEVs with an electric range of 129-199 miles and/or PHEVs with a rated range of 45 miles or greater they qualify for a rebate of $1,000 while BEVs with electric ranges under 120 miles and PHEVs with an electric range under 45 miles are eligible for a rebate of $500. Incentive levels are periodically reviewed and updated based on market conditions.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to TransportationList All

Connecticut’s Housing Incentive Zone Program provides funding to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities or high-density areas, and they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019

Appliance Standards
Score: 0 out of 3
Appliance Standards Summary List All

Policy: C.G.S. Section 16a-48, Chapter 298, Energy Efficiency Standards

Description: In 2004 Connecticut General Statute 16a-48 was passed establishing energy efficiency standards that covered eight products, under jurisdiction of the Connecticut Office of Policy and Management and the Department of Public Utility Control.  Standards for five of the eight products were preempted by the federal standards included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Standards for an additional eight products were added in 2007, although three were preempted by the passing of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Of the eighteen standards introduced in Connecticut since 2001, only five have not been preempted by federal legislation. 

In January 2011, the Connecticut General Assembly passed Bill 1243, which added standards for compact audio players, televisions, and DVD players and recorders. The standards are based on standards from Title 20 of the California Code of Regulations. 

Last Reviewed: July 2019