State and Local Policy Database

Carbon Pricing Policies

As a method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing policies aim to put a price on carbon, the idea being that if emitting GHGs increases costs, then the market will find a way to reduce emissions at the lowest possible cost. Two main types of pricing are generally used: carbon tax and cap-and-trade. A carbon tax charges a fee for each unit of CO2 (typically a tonne) that is emitted. Cap-and-trade sets a limit on the amount of CO2 that can be emitted while issuing permits or certificates that allow for CO2 emission beyond the cap. These certificates can then be traded between owners to find the lowest-cost emissions available. Energy efficiency plays an important role in the successful implementation of carbon pricing policies. Specifically, investing the funds collected from these policies in energy efficiency can help achieve net economic benefits by reducing energy use, energy bills, and energy-related emissions, thus cushioning the effect of a carbon-priced program on energy costs.

The State of Alabama does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Alaska does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Arizona does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per EO 2005-02, Arizona does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 50% by 2040 (baseline year 2000).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Arkansas does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

California’s AB 32 (Statutes of 2006) authorized the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to establish the Cap-and-Trade Program for GHG emissions. The program began in 2013, initially covering the power sector and large industrial facilities. In 2015, the scope of the program coverage was expanded to include emissions from transportation fuels and all supplied natural gas. In 2017, AB 398 (Garcia, Chapter 135, Statutes of 2017) clarified the role of the program to help realize California’s emissions reduction target of at least 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030, as mandated in SB 32. The program covers facilities responsible for emissions of at least 25,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, and it covers about 80 percent of statewide emissions.

About half of all allowances are given freely to either electrical utilities, natural gas suppliers, or the industrial sector, and remaining allowances are available for auction. Allowances allocated to investor-owned electrical utilities must be consigned to the auction, with proceeds used to benefit ratepayers. Publicly owned utilities may use allocated allowances for program compliance or use auction proceeds to reduce emissions and benefit ratepayers. From the auction proceeds derived from the sale of state-owned allowances, which are made available through the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund and the state budgeting process, about 6% of collected funds were allocated to energy efficiency programs in 2019, not including the substantial investments that also went toward low-carbon vehicles and public transportation. The state met its 2020 emissions target in 2016.

A total of $13,172,661,191 has been raised in auction proceeds from the sale of California state-owned allowances and deposited into the California Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund (GGRF) pursuant to California Government Code section 16428.8. An additional $8,492,454,304 was raised by California allowances consigned by electrical distribution utilities and natural gas suppliers. Of the over $13B deposited into the GGRF, $12.687B has been appropriated to California Climate Investments programs for projects that reduce or facilitate the reduction of greenhouse gases as of November 30, 2019. Of these funds, approximately $1.194B has been appropriated to programs with an energy-efficiency focus.

ARB, CPUC, and CEC all track avoided GHG emissions achieved through energy efficiency programs. ARB’s California Climate Investments develops GHG and co-benefit quantification methods for each of the energy efficiency programs funded through Cap-and-Trade proceeds. GHG emissions reductions achieved for each individual program are tracked through an Annual Report. Second, CARB reports statewide GHG emissions annually through the California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Program. GHG emission reductions achieved through energy efficiency programs are indirectly tracked through this program by comparing year to year GHG emissions for commercial and residential buildings. Third, CARB publishes building related emissions and projected GHG reductions for energy efficiency programs through the Climate Change Scoping Plan.

CPUC tracks avoided greenhouse gas emissions achieved through the state’s Energy Efficiency Programs. California tracks first year and lifecycle savings in Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). This data is publicly available on the CPUC managed database. The TRC test also includes a $30/ton adder for carbon.

CEC is assessing the potential to reduce GHG emissions in existing residential and commercial buildings 40 percent by 2030. As part of this activity, the CEC has developed and is using a fuel substitution scenario analysis tool that tracks GHG reduction, energy use, and cost impacts from fuel switching. Preliminary information on the tool was shared in 2019 with the final report due in 2021. Pursuant to SB 3232 (2018), the CEC is assessing the potential to reduce GHG emissions in existing residential and commercial buildings 40 percent by 2030. As part of this activity, the CEC has developed and is using a fuel substitution scenario analysis tool that tracks GHG reduction, energy use, and cost impacts from fuel switching. Preliminary information on the tool was shared in 2019 with the final report due in 2021. The CEC Proposition 39 program tracks GHG reductions resulting from program funded energy efficiency projects in K-12 public schools.

In response to SB 1327 (2005), the California Publicly-Owned Utilities are required to report annually to the Energy Commission on the plans for, budget and expenditures, and energy savings results for energy efficiency programs that they conduct. Since 2008 those reports have tracked estimated GHG emissions resulting from those energy savings. The most recent annual report indicates the on-going responsiveness of POU energy efficiency programs to state climate change goals, and the need to track the GHG emissions resulting from those programs: “A clear focus on programs that reduce energy consumption in existing buildings and new construction will be critical in meeting the State’s carbon reduction goals … California’s newest policy-driven opportunity, and challenge, is to shift the focus of energy efficiency strategies from kilowatt-hours (kWh)saved to GHG emissions reduced.”

Per EO B-55-18, California does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2045 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Colorado does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per state legislation HB19-1261 and HB19-1313, Colorado does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 90% by 2050 (baseline year 2005).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

Connecticut is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

Connecticut collects RGGI dollars that are used for energy efficiency. In general, allocations by funding are 69.5% for energy efficiency (about $128,844,107), 23% for clean energy (about $43 million, and could include some efficiency measures), and 7.5% is retained by DEEP (Conn. Agencies Reg. Section 22a-174-31(f)(6)). These figures are 10 year period to 2019. A portion of the efficiency funds are allocated to municipalities.

Connecticut is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions. This team is engaged in modeling, outreach, and program development efforts and is targeting December 2019 for announcement of potential program design.

Per state legislation PA 08-98 and PA 18-82, Connecticut does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 2001).

Last Updated: September 2022

Delaware is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

Delaware utilizes 65% of its RGGI proceeds on energy efficiency activities, administered through the Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility. 10% of proceeds is dedicated to the Delaware Weatherization Program for weatherizing low- and moderate-income homes. 5% is returned directly to ratepayers through the Low Income Heating and Energy Assistance Program. 10% is dedicated to other programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and 10% is used for administration and policy development efforts. In 2019, Delaware received $14,071,271 in RGGI auction proceeds.

Total investments can be found in RGGI annual proceed reports, in the Delaware chapter. The latest available data is for calendar year 2017. During calendar year 2017, $27M of RGGI funds were invested. 78% of these funds were invested in energy efficiency projects; 9% were invested in clean and renewable energy projects. The remainder was invested in greenhouse gas abatement projects, direct bill assistance, and program administration.

Delaware is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s (TCI) effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions. TCI comprises states from North Carolina to Maine who are engaged in modeling, outreach, and program development efforts for a policy that could be implemented by each state and coordinated regionally to cap emissions from transportation and utilize proceeds from allowance auctions for clean transportation investments. The states are targeting November 2020 for an announcement of the program design. States would, at that time, decide whether to implement the program.

Avoided GHG emissions are reported to RGGI Inc. for all programs funded by RGGI proceeds. Program Administrators for programs reported to the Delaware Energy Efficiency Advisory Council (EEAC) utilize the Mid-Atlantic TRM to calculate energy efficiency and demand resource savings, costs, and emission impacts of programs they offer. In keeping with the state's EM&V regulations, Program Administrators file reports with the EEAC reporting energy impact information for each program; this data is used to calculate avoided greenhouse gas emissions achieved through the programs. The EEAC also approved the use of reduced GHG emissions as a non-energy impact to be used in cost-effectiveness testing.

Per EO 41, Delaware does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 30% by 2030 (baseline year 2008).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The District of Columbia does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per Sustainable DC 2.0 Plan, the District does have a non-binding statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 2006).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Florida does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per EO 07-127 and EO 07-128, Florida does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Georgia does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Hawaii does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per state legislation HB 2182 and Hawaii Act 234, Hawaii does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2045 (baseline year 1990).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Idaho does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Illinois does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Indiana does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Iowa does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Kansas does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Kentucky does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Louisiana does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per EO JBE 2020-18, Louisiana does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 2005).

Last Updated: September 2022

Maine is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

The Efficiency Maine Trust (EMT) reports on greenhouse gas emissions achieved RGGI-funded energy efficiency programs through two channels: (1) the annual "Investment of RGGI Proceeds" report to RGGI Inc., and (2) the RGGI Annual Report to the Maine State Legislature. Maine accounts for the avoided cost of carbon using the Avoided Energy Supply Components (AESC) report that is updated every few years. In it, the price (value) of RGGI carbon allowances is factored into the avoided costs of every kilowatt-hour saved through efficiency programs. Maine applies the AESC cost of carbon in its cost-effectiveness test which is used in establishing MACE (Maine’s study of the potential for “all cost-effective energy efficiency”) and also in its annual reports.

Per EO LD 1679 and EO 10, Maine does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2045 (baseline year 1990).

Last Updated: September 2022

Maryland is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

Maryland's proceeds from RGGI get invested in the Strategic Energy Investment Fund (SEIF). Since inception in 2008 (and through the last RGGI auction in December 2019), Maryland has received over $684 million of revenues from the auction of RGGI carbon allowances for use in its Strategic Energy Investment Program. The most recent version of the RGGI report (covering 2008 through 2017, published in October 2019) shows 29.9% of Maryland's SEIF funds were ultimately directed towards energy efficiency.

Maryland is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions.

Maryland has passed a Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act that requires the development of a greenhouse gas reduction plan, and established a Maryland Climate Change Commission to help with the development of the plan. In regards to this effort, greenhouse gas reductions are tracked economy wide, thus reflecting the results of energy efficiency and renewable energy efforts, but are not tracked for just energy efficiency programs. Some reports by the EmPOWER energy efficiency utilities include information about GHG reduction resulting from energy efficiency programs, but the reporting is not required. This information may also be noted on the Maryland Public Service Commission data request submission.

Per state legislation SB0528, Maryland does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2045 (baseline year 2006).

Last Updated: September 2022

Massachusetts is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

As of the end of 2017, 84% of Massachusetts’ $452 million of RGGI investment was dedicated to energy efficiency through the statewide Three-Year Energy Efficiency Investment Plans and other state programs managed by the Department of Energy Resources such as the Green Communities Designation and Grant Program. After administrative costs and mandated funding to communities that experienced fossil fuel plant closures are allocated, 80% of remaining proceeds (net funding) are allocated to the statewide Energy Efficiency Investment Plans implemented through the Commonwealth’s investor-owned utilities and Program Administrators under the Mass Save® brand to deliver cost-effective energy savings to Massachusetts residences and businesses. The remaining 20% of net funding has been used for Massachusetts’ Green Communities to implement clean energy projects including energy efficiency improvements in municipal-owned buildings, and more recently Massachusetts has initiated incentive programs for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles through RGGI proceeds.

Massachusetts is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions. This team is engaged in modeling, outreach, and program development efforts and is targeting fall of 2020 for announcement of potential program design.

Most of the state’s efficiency programs track avoided emissions. Some state programs do not track avoided emissions because they apply to overcoming market barriers at various stages of the energy efficiency life-cycle rather than direct savings (e.g. grants for training and market development). Avoided cost of environmental compliance (for RGGI) has been a benefit in the benefit-cost test since codified in D.P.U 08-50A (2009). Beginning in 2019, $68/short ton avoided CO2 costs were added as a benefit by D.P.U.

Per state legislation S.9, Massachusetts does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Michigan does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per EO 2020-182, Michigan does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Minnesota does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

The Department of Commerce publishes an annual report on the energy savings and estimated carbon dioxide reductions achieved by energy conservation improvement programs for the two most recent years for which data is available. The historical reports can be accessed here.

Minnesota utilities account for environmental impacts in the Societal Cost test, including SO2, particulates, CO, N2O, lead, and CO2, using environmental cost values approved by the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission. The Department also publishes an annual report on the energy savings and estimated carbon dioxide reductions achieved by energy conservation improvement programs for the two most recent years for which data is available. The historical reports can be accessed here.

Per Minnesota Statue 216H.02, Minnesota does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 2005).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Mississippi does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Missouri does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Montana does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Nebraska does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Nevada does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per SB 254, Nevada does have a non-binding statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 2005).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

New Hampshire is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

For 2017, 26.6% was spent on EE, and cumulative 2009-2017 45.7% has been spent on EE. The Home Energy Assistance and Municipal programs will save ~87,564 MWh of electricity and 133,407 MMBtu over the expected life of the equipment improvements made in 2017. Associated bill savings over the lifetime of these improvements is estimated to be $16.9 million. The All-Fuels program will save approximately 463 MWh of electricity and 214,500 MMBtu over the expected life of the efficient equipment improvements made in 2017. Associated bill savings over the lifetime of these improvements is estimated to be $4.6 million. The All-Fuels program was launched in 2016. Over a three-year period (2016-2018), the program is estimated to receive $1.2 million of RGGI funding. The All-Fuels program targets energy efficiency measures for retail businesses and large commercial and industrial energy users.

Per EO goal resulting from EO-established Climate Change Policy Task Force report (EO 2007-3), New Hampshire does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Updated: September 2022

New Jersey is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030. The first quarterly RGGI CO2 auction took place on March 11, 2020, allocating $20.7 million to New Jersey for investment in clean energy and greenhouse gas reduction strategies in the State. Three agencies, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, and New Jersey Economic Development Authority, released the RGGI Strategic Funding Plan identifying how the RGGI auction proceeds will be distributed for the 3-year funding period (years 2020 through 2022).

New Jersey is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions. In December 2019 the group released a draft MOU for stakeholder input, along with preliminary estimates of the environmental, health, and economic benefits that could be achieved by a regional program. The final MOU is expected in 2020.

Per state legislation N.J.S.A 26:2C-37, New Jersey does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 2006).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of New Mexico does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per EO 2019-003, New Mexico does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 45% by 2030 (baseline year 2005).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

New York is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

Per state legislation S6599/A8429, New York does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of North Carolina does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per EO No. 80, North Carolina does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 40% by 2025 (baseline year 2005).

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of North Dakota does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Ohio does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Oklahoma does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Oregon does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per HB 3543, Oregon does have a non-binding statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 75% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

Pennsylvania joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in 2022.

Per EO 2019-01, Pennsylvania does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 2005).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

Rhode Island is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030. Since 2012, 68% of Rhode Island's RGGI auction proceeds have gone towards support of energy efficiency policies and programs ($56,001,952.42 eligible to disburse; $38,255,991.64 dedicated to EE).

Rhode Island is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions. This team is engaged in modeling, outreach, and program development efforts and released a draft MOU to the public for feedback in December of 2019. That MOU is expected to be finalized in the fall of 2020, with delays related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Rhode Island began conductions a Carbon Pricing Study at the end of 2019 that is researching potential policy options for State and Regional carbon pricing in order to inform state legislators, policymakers, and stakeholders about the availabel options and potential impacts.

Per state legislation S-0078A, Rhode Island does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of South Carolina does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of South Dakota does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Tennessee does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Texas does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Utah does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

Vermont is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program for reducing GHG emissions in North America that began its compliance period in 2009. Capping CO2 emissions from the power sector, the program aims to reduce emissions by 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and additionally by 30% by 2030.

Vermont is also a participant in the Transportation and Climate Initiative’s effort to develop a cap-and-invest program for transportation emissions.

Per 10 V.S.A. § 578, (2016) Comprehensive Energy Plan, Vermont does have a non-binding statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 80% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

During the 2020 General Assembly session, legislation passed to enable Virginia's participation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). The Clean Energy and Flood Preparedness Act (HB 981) requires that 50 percent of the revenue generated by Virginia-based facilities' participation in the RGGI allowance auctions shall be credited to an account administered by the Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) to support low-income energy efficiency programs, including programs for eligible housing developments. DHCD shall review and approve funding proposals for such energy efficiency programs.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of Washington does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

Per state legislation HB 2311, Washington does have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place, specifically to reduce emissions 100% by 2050 (baseline year 1990).

Last Reviewed: September 2022

The State of West Virginia does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Wisconsin does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022

The State of Wyoming does not yet have carbon pricing policies in place.

At this time, the state does not have a statewide emissions reduction goal in place.

Last Updated: September 2022