State and Local Policy Database

Equitable Access to Transportation

As cities have sprawled and jobs have moved away from urban cores in the United States, many low-income communities have become geographically more isolated and inadequately served by affordable, efficient transportation. Expenditures for vehicles, including fuel consumption, insurance, and maintenance, can be large and unpredictable. States can use policy levers to ensure fair and equitable access to public transportation and newer shared-use services in a number of ways. For example, states can provide incentives to developers that set aside a fixed percentage of housing in transit-served areas to help align housing and transportation choices for low-income families. Similarly, many states use distance from transit services as a key criterion for disbursing federal low-income tax credit funds to qualifying property owners, ensuring that low-income communities are served by a variety of transportation alternatives.

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Alabama does not have any programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities nor do they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Alaska does not have any programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor do they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Arizona does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Arkansas does not have any programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor do they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Equitable transportation electrification

Arkansas is encouraging the development of electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) across the state with the launch of the Level 2 EVSE Rebate Program on February 1, 2021.  This is a four-year program offering $215,563.00 for rebates each year.  There are categories for government and non-government publicly available, and also for workplace and multi-unit dwelling non-publicly available. A funding assistance program is being developed for the deployment of several DC Fast Charge EVSE also.

AEO will be offering funding assistance for the replacement of diesel engine school/transit buses with the ABC (Advanced Bus & Clean) Transportation Pilot Program.  This program will be funded through the Volkswagen Settlement monies awarded to Arkansas.  The program is still in development.

Last Reviewed: May 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

The California Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Housing Program, administered by the Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) provides $2.85 billion for housing and infrastructure programs within close proximity (0.5 mile) of a transit station and 15% of units must be affordable to low- or very-low-income households.

HCD’s Affordable Housing and Sustainable Communities (AHSC) Program provides funds to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

ARB’s Low Carbon Transportation Investments and Air Quality Improvement Program offers Car Sharing and Clean Mobility Options incentive program, which helps connect low-income consumers and housing with transit, car share, and other mobility options.
HCD’s Infill Infrastructure Grant (IIG) funds Capital Improvement Projects for Qualifying Infill Projects or Qualifying Infill Areas. Application criteria includes housing density, access to transit, and housing affordability. Funding and program requirements are described under Assembly Bill 101 (Stats. 2019, ch. 159, § 20) and Part 12.5 (commencing with section 53559) of Division 31 of Health and Safety Code.

HCD’s Predevelopment Loan Program (PDLP) finances projects covering acquisition for future low-income housing developments, with some priority given to projects located in public transit corridors.

Low-Income Housing Tax Credit:
Applicants to the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit program, administered by the California Tax Credit Allocation Committee within the Treasurer’s office, receive points based on the transit and related amenities for affordable housing developments. To be successful, projects generally need to score all 10 possible points. The scale has a long list of possible points related to transit, parks, libraries, full scale groceries, schools, medical facilities, pharmacies and services. This encourages tenant convenience and supports reduced driving and increased transit ridership. A project can earn up to 7 points, the biggest single point category, for proximity to transit and up to 3 additional points for providing free or discounted transit passes to residents for at least 15 years.

Low-Income Housing Tax Credit projects in California commonly also participate simultaneously in the Multifamily Private Activity Bonds program, administered by the California Debt Limit Allocation Committee within the Treasurer’s office, which is designed similarly to the Low Income Tax Credit program. Applicants receive points based on the transit amenities for a housing development. Applicants receive the maximum 2.5 points (of the 10 amenity points) when the development is located within 1/3 mile of a Public Transit Corridor or ½ mile from a High Quality Transit Station.

Last Reviewed: July 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Colorado does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Equitable transportation electrification

The 2020 Colorado Electric Vehicle Plan contains goals around engaging people that contains several actions related to EV Equity that include:  conducting and EV Equity Study and incorporating the findings of that study in transit electrification grant programs and the medium- and heavy-duty vehicle electrification strategies.  This plan can be found here.

The Colorado DOT is currently working with partners to develop an approach for ensuring that transit EVs are deployed equitably, providing access to low-income and other underserved communities. The intention to include these considerations in future grant selection criteria and measure the distribution of funds moving forward to track progress and continually improve. 

Last Reviewed: May 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Connecticut’s Housing Incentive Zone Program provides funding to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities or high-density areas, and they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Delaware does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

This year the state re-launched the “Get a Job, Get a Ride” program which provides new employees a free 30-Day Bus Pass that allows for transportation to and from work for 30 days after starting a new job.  This program helps low-income save money by reducing transportation costs during their first month of employment.  

In Spring of 2021, the Delaware Department of Transportation, DART office launched DART Connect, a new service pilot project funded under the Federal Transit Administration’s Accelerating Innovative Mobility grant. DART Connect is an on-demand micro-transit service that provides transportation for rural communities in Sussex County, Delaware. This project connects residents of the most rural and underserved areas of the state with flexible and on-demand transportation options to get them to their jobs, doctors’ appointments, and grocery stores.  

Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

D.C.'s Amendment 10801 to the Housing Code requires the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities. The District also considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Florida incentivizes the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

The Florida Housing Finance Corporation (FHFC) administers the State Housing Initiatives Partnership (SHIP) and the State Apartment Incentive Loan (SAIL) programs, and awards points for proposed low-income housing projects based on proximity to transit facilities. To encourage development closer to public transportation in all areas of a community, FHFC awards points to proposed developments in closer proximity to rail stations, bus rapid transit stops and bus stops.

Both the EV Roadmap and the EVMP identify transit as playing a large role in implementation of EVs. The EVMP recommends a target of a minimum of 25% EV Fleet purchase for municipal vehicles by 2025 and EV transit and school bus fleet purchase by 2030. 

Equity in transportation electrification

Florida's Office of Energy, in coordination with other state agencies and stakeholders, developed the EV Roadmap. The EV Roadmap highlights the disproportionate health and environmental impacts that burden rural and low income communities. To that end, the report suggests that these communities should be the first to receive investment for technologies and infrastructure needs to help mitigate changing climates and provide a more equitable distribution of EVs in Florida. 

Florida's DOT, in coordination with OOE and other stakeholders, drafted the EV Master Plan (EVMP). The EVMP identifies gaps in EV infrastructure in rural and low income areas as one of the main barriers to implementation. In the geospatial gap analysis done by FDOT, greatest weight was assigned to areas that represent the lowest 20% of income. Additionally, one of the strategies includes potentially providing a rebate for used EVs to introduce more EVs to the market to those with lower incomes. 

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Georgia does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Hawaii does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

HSEO’s 2015 Hawai‘i Clean Energy Initiative Transportation Energy Analysis identified mobility efficiencies as having the largest potential to reduce fossil fuel consumption. VMT, transit-oriented development, and multi-modal strategies are currently cost-effective means to reduce carbon emissions while improving traqnsportation affordability and communities' livability. Performance metrics are a foundational component for quantitatively evaluating progress and specifically, the advancement of transportation decarbonization strategies and policies. As the HSEO continues to expand its assessment of clean transportation in Hawai‘i, HSEO will be incorporating additional clean transportation metrics into its facts and figures. (link)

The State has established the Hawaiʻi Interagency Council for Transit-Oriented Development, tasked with developing and implementing a State strategic plan for TOD, including mixed-use and affordable and rental housing. The plan utilizes Smart Growth and TOD practices to design compact and accessible mixed-use developments that also preserve Hawaiʻi's valued agricultural lands, open space, and natural resources. TOD plans on Oʻahu are centered along the 20-mile corridor of the planned Honolulu Rail Transit Project, while neighbor islands require a different TOD approach focused on bus and other transit services serving lower density areas. The TOD strategic plan outlines the State's vision for investing in livable and equitable communities which are walkable, served by public and multimodal transportation options, and provide ready and affordable access to the necessities of daily life. (link)

Equity in transportation electrification

As the designated agency to administer the Volkswagen Settlement Environmental Trust on behalf of the state, HSEO developed a Beneficiary Mitigation Plan that focused on market ready zero emission technologies. To that end there is a specific emphasis on projects that facilitate the adoption and deployment of electric drive vehicles and charging infrastructure. This focus complements the commitments of the counties to convert their fleets to 100 percent renewable energy by 2045 and builds on the momentum created from the counties’ adoption of battery electric transit buses (link). 

HRS Section 269.72 established an EV Charging Station Incentive Program, administered by public benefits provider Hawaiʻi Energy. This program helps to offset the costs of new installations or upgrades to existing systems for Level 2 charging stations with two or more ports or DC fast charging stations. Priority is given to EV charging stations which are publicly available; serve multiple tenants, employees, or customers; or serve EV fleets. This program helps to make EVs a viable choice for LMI and ALICE residents and those living in MUDs by lowering the cost barrier and supporting EV adoption statewide. More than 70 new charging systems have been installed or are in the pipeline, including Level 2 stations installed in at least two affordable housing developments (link) (link).

HRS Section 196-7.5 establishes that no person shall be prevented from installing an EV charging system on or near the parking stall of any multi-family residential dwelling or townhouse that the person owns. The ability to charge at home is a major deciding factor when purchasing an EV. This policy supports equitable EV charging system deployment by removing a major barrier for MUD residents, a population which significantly overlaps LMI and ALICE populations, allowing them to more reasonably adopt EVs along with home charging capacity (link).

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Idaho does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it does not consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Illinois does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Indiana does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Iowa does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Kansas does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Kentucky does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Louisiana does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Maine does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

As part of its Electric Vehicle Initiative program, Efficiency Maine has assessed travel data and existing charging infrastructure distribution and conducted stakeholder engagement to ensure geographic distribution of new EV charging infrastructure with public funds. Efficiency Maine has allocated a portion of its funds for use by governmental entities, tribal governments, and nonprofits. EMT funding received through a settlement related to the New England Clean Energy Connect (NECEC) project includes dedicated resources for low- and moderate-income households for heat pumps, heat pump water heaters, weatherization, and electric vehicle rebates. For EV rebates specifically, the NECEC settlement specifies 25% of the EV rebate budget must be spent on low-income individuals. Maine Won't Wait recommends establishing a time-limited incentive program targeting low- and moderate-income drivers to encourage drivers to upgrade to higher-efficiency vehicles in the near term. The state is also in the process of developing a Clean Transportation Roadmap to set forth a comprehensive plan for advancing EV adoption in Maine, and equity will be a key focus throughout hat analysis.The Maine Climate Council also established an Equity Subcommittee to support ongoing planning and implementation of Maine's climate strategies to ensure shared benefits across diverse populations of Maine people and to understand any concerns for implementation and it is developing mechanisms to track the progress of equitable expansion of electric vehicle adoption in Maine. 

Equity in transportation electrification

In its electric vehicle (EV) rebate program, Efficiency Maine Trust offers an additional $2,500 on top of the standard rebate amount for any qualifying low-income Mainer who purchases/leases any qualifying battery electric vehicle (BEV) or (PHEV) for a total enhanced rebate of $5,500 and $4,000, respectively. The program also expanded eligibility of qualifying used BEVs and PHEVs to low-income customers. The Trust will continue to strategically conduct gap analyses and seek opportunities to invest in EV charging infrastructure in underserved areas throughout the state. In particular, the Trust is interested in prioritizing EV charging at affordable housing developments.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Maryland does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Equity in transportation electrificiation

There is no current mandate or formalized goal for equitable deployment of electric vehicle charging infrastructure; however, equitable access is being addressed in other ways. 

  • The Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) has intitiated Public Conference 44, which focuses on transforming Maryland's electric distribution system.  As part of this conference, there is an Electric Vehicle Working Group; this working group submitted a Petition for Implementation of a Statewide Electric Vehicle Portfolio.  The PSC's order includes EV offerings for multi-unity dwellings as this "serves a public interest by providing equitable access to EV charging for underserved areas." (see page 58 of Order)
  • The Electric Corridors Grant Program, a competitive program for DC fast chargers, using Maryland's share of the Volkswagen emissions settlement, included "Benefits to communities that bear a disproportionate share of the air pollution burden" among the program's evaluation criteria. 

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Massachusetts provides financial support to housing projects located near transit facilities through a number of state programs: Commercial Area Transit Node Housing Program, MassWorks TOD Infrastructure and Housing Support Program, and the Housing and Smart Growth Incentives (Chapter 40R). The state also considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Equity in transportation electrification

The Climate Act of 2021 includes electric vehicles and chargers as a strategy to meet statutory emissions limits. In addition, EEA is currently accepting public comment on updates to the Clean Energy and Climate Plan and have requested feedback on the equity of the policies therein.
 

Last Reviewed: June 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Michigan does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

MDOT’s Office of Passenger Transportation is directly involved in helping transit providers in southeast Michigan harmonize fare collections as a means of making transit use easier for clients.  While this by itself does not expand the coverage area of a transit agency, it does make access easier, and hopefully will encourage greater utilization by clients who have been discouraged by complexity of navigating different systems and payments.
 
Equity in transportation electrification
  • Michigan does not presently impose mandates on the purchase of EVs or requirements for their access to people of underserved communities.  However, Governor Whitmer established the Council on Future Mobility and Electrification in 2020 to recommend policies to the legislature.  The Council is actively discussing recommendations on incentives for purchase of electric vehicles and ways to structure payments to avoid high initial costs.  
  • State departments under the guidance of the former Energy Office (now Department of Environment, Great Lakes and Energy) commissioned a comprehensive study of electric charging station optimal placement from Michigan State University.  The report has identified the initial places for optimal charging locations to avoid gaps in availability and reduce range anxiety.  The report has been embraced by industry partners in planning for new stations.  The challenge will be to steadily expand this beginning network to reach more and more communities even where there are not presently EV owners.  The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) is researching new options for charging stations on public property as a result of recent guidance from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 
  • The Office of Future Mobility and Electrification (OFME)is working with colleagues in other midwestern states to develop agreements for multi-state charging routes particularly for freight and commercial movements.  While not immediately linked to efforts on equity, these efforts will hopefully bring the benefits of climate responses even in areas of low EV ownership, and will hasten the overall adoption of alternate fuel vehicles.
  • The OFME is also developing a guidebook for local units of government to prepare for “EV readiness”.  Hopefully, this guide will smooth the decision process at the local level, and begin efforts to incorporate EV use at the local level and in unreached neighborhoods.
 

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Minnesota incentivizes the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities through the Land Acquisition for Affordable New Development (LAAND) Program, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Mississippi does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Missouri encourages the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners (link).

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Montana does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Nebraska does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Nevada does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

AB 413, signed in 2021, will establish a transportation working group to look at issues including greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation. The group will consider the needs of all types of transportation users, including car drivers, transit users, bicyclists and pedestrians, alongwith social equity issues.

Equity in vehicle electrification

SB 448, signed in 2021, will clear the way for the completion of a major intrastate transmission line upgrade project and also require NV Energy to invest $100 million in electric vehicle charging stations. The bill also makes a host of other policy changes that will boost carbon reduction efforts throughout the state.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

New Hampshire does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Equity in transportation electrification

New Hampshire became a Beneficiary of the Volkswagen Mitigation Trust in late January, 2018.  The Beneficiary Mitigation Plan which describes how New Hampshire plans to use the almost $31,000,000 allocated to the State under the terms of the Mitigation Trust, supports the use of zero emission and near-zero emission vehicles by investing in electric vehicle charging infrastructure at strategic locations throughout the state.  The Mitigation Plan also gives priority to projects that are located in  areas with historical air quality issues, and areas that receive a disproportionate quantity of air pollution from diesel fleets.  Approximately $4.6 million (15 percent) of New Hampshire’s allocation will be used for the acquisition, installation, operation and maintenance of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

New Jersey does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

New Mexico does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

The NYS Homes and Community Renewal considers transportation proximity in their distribution of state funds and federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: November 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

North Carolina does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

North Dakota does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Ohio does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Oklahoma does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

Oregon does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Oregon Department of Transportation is conducting a Transit and Housing Study in response to a request from Oregon State Legislature which will consider policies and actions that could improve households' quality of life through increasing housing opportunities with easy connections to transit. This study will engage housing agencies, developers, transit providers, local and tribal governments across Oregon to identify policies and actions that improve access to attainable housing and convenient, reliable transit. It will explore new tools for addressing growing transportation challenges while simultaneously tackling housing affordability.

ODOT's Strategic Action Plan has an outcome of increased equitable access to active and public transportation, and also the outcome to electrify Oregon’s transportation system. STIF program funding prioritizes and measures public transportation improvements benefiting low income households. 

Equity in transportation electrification

  • Oregon Charge Ahead Rebate: This rebate is for the purchase or lease of a new or used zero-emission vehicle (battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric) for low- to moderate-income Oregonians. Eligibility for the program is dependent on income level, which varies by geographic area. The rebate is $2500 and can be combined with the state’s Clean Vehicle rebate, which is up to an additional $2500 and open to all residents (link).
  • Oregon Public Utilities Commission’s Order No. 18-376 put an emphasis on underserved communities in the expenditure of Clean Fuels Credit funds which has been the biggest source of transportation electrification funding ever since.
  • HB 2165 requires utilities to collect a .25% surcharge on retail sales to fund TE programs. Half the expenditures have to be on underserved communities: 
  • Every Mile Counts: Directed by Oregon Governor Kate Brown in 2019, this is a multi-agency action to implement the state’s strategy to reduce GHG emissions in the transportation sector. Understanding and addressing equity is a core component of the initiative and included a 2-day workshop with multiple leaders of underserved communities to identify best practices for the agencies as they work to implement the action plan (Workshops Summary Report). The result of the workshop included guiding principles and an overview of specific feedback from participants that will guide the agencies throughout implementation. State agency activities to support transportation electrification are a key element of the EMC Implementation Workplan, which includes the development of a Zero-Emission Vehicle Interagency Action Plan (ZAP) and to conduct a Transportation Infrastructure Needs Analysis (TEINA) study. The ZAP includes equity-focused activities, including increasing the awareness and effectiveness of the Charge Ahead rebate to low- and moderate-income communities and providing guidebooks for local governments and multi-unit dwellings and residents with off-the-shelf information to help them more easily plan for and support development of charging infrastructure. 
  • Transportation Infrastructure Needs Analysis (TEINA) study: Mandated by Oregon Governor Kate Brown in Executive Order 20-04, this study is intended to assess gaps in charging infrastructure needed to meet the state’s EV adoption goals established in SB 1044 (2019). As part of this work, the TEINA study is included an equity-focus, which not only looks at charging needs for personal EV and identifying a large gap in available EV charging to low-income and other underserved communities.

  • Most of Oregon’s mass transit is in PGE’s service territory. PGE has a pilot program to fund EVSE for TriMet, Oregon’s largest transit agency (link).

  • Most of Oregon’s low-income multi-unit dwellings are in PGE’s service territory too. PGE has a special incentive for EVSE in low-income MUD (link):

  • Oregon’s Department of Environmental Quality offers a higher EV purchase subsidy for income-qualifying car buyers (link). 

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Pennsylvania does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Updated: October 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Rhode Island does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

South Carolina does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

South Dakota does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Expanding access to public transit

Office of Mobility & Accessible Transportation: Enacted by TN legislature in 2020 with the purpose of improving the mobility of Tennesseans. The Office resides in the Multimodal Division of TDOT and provides resources and expertise for expanding and improving accessible transportation and mobility across the state. The Office provides an annual report to the legislature on their work. The 2021 Report featured the initial draft of a 5-year strategic plan and the 2022 report will include the final Strategic Plan that includes objectives for the next 5-years.

Statewide Job Access Reverse Commute: This Coordinated Statewide JARC planning project will use active community engagement and human-centered design to identify and address critical transportation needs for employment access in persistent poverty communities. The final objective is a fully developed Statewide JARC Program which will increase access to jobs through enhanced transit options in persistent poverty areas, with an emphasis on innovate program design.

Pedestrian Road Safety Initiative: TDOT Multimodal Planning Office is currently utilizing Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) funds specifically to spot infrastructure improvements for pedestrian safety, such as sidewalks and signalized midblock crossings in high needs pedestrian locations. These chosen locations align with transit routes and underserved populations. To target these locations, TDOT created the Multimodal Prioritization Tool, which includes factors such as crash history and underserved population demographics to score Tennessee roadways and prioritize highest need locations.

The Tennessee Housing Development Authority's (THDA) Low Income Housing Credit (LIHC) 2021 Qualified Allocation Plan also notes that preference for Public Housing Authority and Existing Multifamily Housing Allocations will be given to projects that propose a development covered by a Concerted Community Revitalization Plan, which must address infrastructure (e.g., access to public transit, transit-oriented development, etc.)."

Equitable transportation electrification

On February 3, 2021, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) announced a partnership to develop a statewide electric vehicle (EV) fast charging network to power the growth of EVs across Tennessee and reduce barriers to transportation electrification. Specifically, the two have signed an agreement to collaborate and fund a network of fast charging stations every 50 miles along Tennessee’s interstates and major highways.

TDEC and TVA will leverage various funding sources to support the development of the fast charging network with an anticipated project cost of $20 million. TDEC has committed 15%, the maximum allowable, of the State’s Volkswagen Diesel Settlement Environmental Mitigation Trust allocation to fund light-duty EV charging infrastructure. Approximately $5 million from this fund is expected to be allocated to fast charging infrastructure along corridors.

Under the state's initial allocation under the Volkswagen Settlement Environmental Mitigation Trust, all grant programs released by TDEC thus far (the School Bus Replacement Grant Program, Transit and Shuttle Bus Grant Program, and the Medium and Large Truck Grant Program) have offered higher funding caps for government-owned projects that will operate 70% or more of the time in economically Distressed counties (as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission). Distressed Counties are defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission as those counties that rank amongst the 10% most economically distressed counties in the nation based on a three-year average unemployment rate, per capita market income, and poverty rate. Distressed County designations are updated each State Fiscal Year. Additionally, to consider the potential beneficial impact of selected projects on air quality in areas that bear a disproportionate share of the air pollution burden, the State has developed a “Disproportionate Burden Index” (DBI), which combines environmental, economic, and demographic datasets in a geospatial format to determine geographic units in Tennessee that have the highest air quality burden. Given that disproportionate burden is relative to the location of a project, TDEC utilizes the DBI and its geospatial display during the proposal review phase to assist with project prioritization and selection, focusing on the location and/or service area of the proposed project. For more information on the DBI, refer to Section VI. Consideration of Disproportionate Burden within the State of Tennessee’s Beneficiary Mitigation Plan.

In January 2019, Drive Electric TN (DET) released the first edition of its Electric Vehicle Roadmap, which identifies “Opportunity Areas” that will increase EV adoption across multiple Tennessee use cases and sectors. Three DET Opportunity Area committees have since been formed to address various projects and initiatives highlighted in the Roadmap: Charging Infrastructure Availability, Policies and Programs, and Awareness.

The Policies and Programs Opportunity Area has begun several projects to promote best practices for equitable EV and charging infrastructure deployment, including creation of a Local Action Plan video series for use by local governments in support of transportation electrification. One planned video in this series, expected for publication by the end of 2021, will address steps local governments and other stakeholders can take when designing and implementing policies for equitable access to EVs and their economic, environmental, and social benefits.

Additionally, in November 2019, DET’s Infrastructure Opportunity Area published a Statewide Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Needs Assessment to evaluate the condition of Tennessee's current EV charging infrastructure and to identify charging needs for the future. Whereas high demand EV charging sites can attract private investment (e.g., retail charging, community charging), the Needs Assessment found that lower demand EV charging sites (e.g., corridor charging, rural charging) are not as appealing for private investors and may require investment from public institutions and/or utilities. The Needs Assessment also concluded that EV charging infrastructure should be prioritized for highway routes and rural tourism destinations, to relieve range anxiety and connect rural and urban areas. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Opportunity Maps developed by TDEC highlight these corridors and existing fast charging infrastructure (DCFC), the location of State Parks, and Distressed and At-risk Counties.

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Texas does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: May 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

The Utah Housing Corp prioritizes the development of projects located within 1/3 mile of walking distance along public access to an existing or currently under construction Trax or FrontRunner stop/station but not bus lines. They also includes bus routes that are considered to be "core" routes that tend to not change over time.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Vermont does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. In addition, the Act 250 statewide land use law for major projects supports providing safe access and connections to transit networks and services under Criterion 5(B).

Last Reviewed: June 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Virginia does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. In 2020, the Virginia General Assembly adopted as part of its transportation funding omnibus bill (House Bill 1414 / Senate Bill 890) a “Transit Ridership Incentive Program” to promote improved transit service in urban localities and reduce barriers to transit use for low-income individuals through programs to reduce and/or eliminate fares. Last Reviewed: June 2020

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Public transit access

  • Washington considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing state grants and federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. The state has a grant program for transit agencies to transition to decarbonized alternatives; the grant program prioritizes and incorporates equity metrics as part of the application evaluation;
  • Washington's sales/use tax incentive for EVs includes used vehicles, which was intended to support adoption by lower- and middle-income households.
  • Washington's Growth Management Act encourages and in some cases requires ToD as part of local governments' land-use, transportation and economic development planning; 
  • Many of the state's transit agency governoring authorities require that land acquired as part of transit development be sold for affordable housing construction as well as other ToD elements; Commerce and other state agency EVSE grants are designed to meaningfully support EVSE deployment and utilization within underserved areas as well as ensure benefits flow to those areas even if direct use is not occurring.  

Equity in transportation electrification

Washington state's HEAL Act (SB 5141) will require grants and certain agency actions to support equitable outcomes; this legislation impacts how agencies like Commerce and WSDOT will develop and implement our EV charging infrastructure grants. 

Furthermore, our recently passed low-carbon fuel standard (HB 1091) and Cap & Invest (Climate Committment Act, SB 5192) require at least 30% and 40% respectively of all program revenues to be invested in overburdened populations, i.e., mandate equitable deployment. Because these programs have programmatic and legislative funding targets towards EV adoption and EVSE deployment, Washington state can expect comprehensive and significant equitable deployment of transportation electrification.

Finally, Commerce's Clean Energy Fund's Electrification of Transportation Systems grant prioritizes equitable deployment of EVSE above all other policy and programmatic outcomes. ETS 1 featured a number of quanitative, qualitative and structural equitable components to ensure just outcomes. ETS 2 enhances and continues these trends. 

Last Reviewed: July 2021

Equitable Access to Transportation:

West Virginia does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Wisconsin does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019

Equitable Access to Transportation:

Wyoming does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners.

Last Reviewed: July 2019