State and Local Policy Database

Equitable Access to Transportation

As cities have sprawled and jobs have moved away from urban cores in the United States, many low-income communities have become geographically more isolated and inadequately served by affordable, efficient transportation. Expenditures for vehicles, including fuel consumption, insurance, and maintenance, can be large and unpredictable. States can use policy levers to ensure fair and equitable access to public transportation and newer shared-use services in a number of ways. For example, states can provide incentives to developers that set aside a fixed percentage of housing in transit-served areas to help align housing and transportation choices for low-income families. Similarly, many states use distance from transit services as a key criterion for disbursing federal low-income tax credit funds to qualifying property owners, ensuring that low-income communities are served by a variety of transportation alternatives.

Equitable Access to Transportation:
Alabama does not have any programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities nor do they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Alaska does not have any programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor do they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Arizona does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Arkansas does not have any programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor do they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
The California Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Housing Program, administered by the Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) provides $2.85 billion for housing and infrastructure programs within close proximity (0.5 mile) of a transit station and 15% of units must be affordable to low- or very-low-income households. HCD’s Affordable Housing and Sustainable Communities (AHSC) Program provides funds to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. ARB’s Low Carbon Transportation Investments and Air Quality Improvement Program offers Car Sharing and Clean Mobility Options incentive program, which helps connect low-income consumers and housing with transit, car share, and other mobility options. HCD’s Infill Infrastructure Grant (IIG) funds Capital Improvement Projects for Qualifying Infill Projects or Qualifying Infill Areas. Application criteria includes housing density, access to transit, and housing affordability. Funding and program requirements are described under Assembly Bill 101 (Stats. 2019, ch. 159, § 20) and Part 12.5 (commencing with section 53559) of Division 31 of Health and Safety Code. HCD’s Predevelopment Loan Program (PDLP) finances projects covering acquisition for future low-income housing developments, with some priority given to projects located in public transit corridors. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit: Applicants to the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit program, administered by the California Tax Credit Allocation Committee within the Treasurer’s office, receive points based on the transit and related amenities for affordable housing developments. To be successful, projects generally need to score all 10 possible points. The scale has a long list of possible points related to transit, parks, libraries, full scale groceries, schools, medical facilities, pharmacies and services. This encourages tenant convenience and supports reduced driving and increased transit ridership. A project can earn up to 7 points, the biggest single point category, for proximity to transit and up to 3 additional points for providing free or discounted transit passes to residents for at least 15 years. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit projects in California commonly also participate simultaneously in the Multifamily Private Activity Bonds program, administered by the California Debt Limit Allocation Committee within the Treasurer’s office, which is designed similarly to the Low Income Tax Credit program. Applicants receive points based on the transit amenities for a housing development. Applicants receive the maximum 2.5 points (of the 10 amenity points) when the development is located within 1/3 mile of a Public Transit Corridor or ½ mile from a High Quality Transit Station. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Colorado does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Connecticut’s Housing Incentive Zone Program provides funding to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities or high-density areas, and they consider proximity to transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Delaware does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
D.C.'s Amendment 10801 to the Housing Code requires the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities. The District also considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Florida incentivizes the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Georgia does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Hawaii does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Idaho does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it does not consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Illinois does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Indiana does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Iowa does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Kansas does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Kentucky does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Louisiana does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Maine does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Maryland does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Massachusetts provides financial support to housing projects located near transit facilities through a number of state programs: Commercial Area Transit Node Housing Program, MassWorks TOD Infrastructure and Housing Support Program, and the Housing and Smart Growth Incentives (Chapter 40R). The state also considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Michigan does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Minnesota incentivizes the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities through the Land Acquisition for Affordable New Development (LAAND) Program, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Mississippi does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Missouri encourages the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, and it considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. For more information, please see http://www.mhdc.com/rental_production/2019-fy-items/FY2019%20DG%20Final.pdf. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Montana does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Nebraska does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Nevada does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
New Hampshire does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
New Jersey does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
New Mexico does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
The NYS Homes and Community Renewal considers transportation proximity in their distribution of state funds and federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: November 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
North Carolina does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
North Dakota does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Ohio does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Oklahoma does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Oregon does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Pennsylvania does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Updated: October 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Rhode Island does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
South Carolina does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
South Dakota does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Starting in 2021, THDA will utilize the Enterprise Opportunity 360 Index Methodology and will measure outcomes related to education, economic security, and mobility during the LIHTC application review process. Each of these three outcome dimensions will be measured by an index value calculated from a combination of neighborhood-level (census tract) variables or indicators. The indicators will be normalized to a common scale and averaged together to create percentile ranking scores for each dimension. More information on the Enterprise Opportunity 360 Index Methodology as well as the indicators to be used for the mobility outcome dimension can be found here: https://www.enterprisecommunity.org/download?fid=13142&nid=3641. Last Reviewed: July 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Texas does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
The Utah Housing Corp prioritizes the development of projects located within 1/3 mile of walking distance along public access to an existing or currently under construction Trax or FrontRunner stop/station but not bus lines. They also includes bus routes that are considered to be "core" routes that tend to not change over time. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Vermont does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. In addition, the Act 250 statewide land use law for major projects supports providing safe access and connections to transit networks and services under Criterion 5(B). Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Virginia does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, but it does consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. In 2020, the Virginia General Assembly adopted as part of its transportation funding omnibus bill (House Bill 1414 / Senate Bill 890) a “Transit Ridership Incentive Program” to promote improved transit service in urban localities and reduce barriers to transit use for low-income individuals through programs to reduce and/or eliminate fares. Last Reviewed: June 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Washington considers the proximity of transit facilities when distributing state grants and federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: May 2020
Equitable Access to Transportation:
West Virginia does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Wisconsin does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019
Equitable Access to Transportation:
Wyoming does not have any state programs in place to incentivize the creation of low-income housing near transit facilities, nor does it consider the proximity of transit facilities when distributing federal Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to qualifying property owners. Last Reviewed: July 2019