State and Local Policy Database

Efficient Distributed Energy Systems

District energy and combined heat and power (CHP) systems offer opportunities for communities to dramatically decrease the energy used in buildings and energy intensive processes. Buildings served by a district energy system often do not need their own heating and cooling equipment, and instead rely on efficient generation serving larger populations. When combined with CHP, also known as cogeneration, district energy systems can also offer an efficient source of electricity that is highly reliable. While many district energy and CHP systems are privately owned, cities can help foster this infrastructure through policy.

This sub-category includes information on three topics: total megawatts of CHP capacity in the city (from the Combined Heat and Power Installation Database); number of district energy systems which integrate CHP in the city (from IDEA); level of planning undertaken for future district energy systems with CHP.

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

There are currently no district energy systems in Arlington County, however, the Community Energy Plan calls for the development of 450MW of district energy by 2050.  Additionally, Arlington County has mapped the energy density of the whole community to identify areas for potential district energy systems.

Last updated: May 2017

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Aurora hosts three community solar systems on city property. 

Last updated: March 2020

Austin Energy operates the Downtown Central Business Cooling Plant and Mueller Redevelopment Cooling, Heating, and Power Plant. In 2014, the utility integrated an energy storage system into the plant. Austin Energy also offers residential customers the option to enroll in a community solar program.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Through Boston Planning and Development Agency’s (BPDA) Smart Utilities Policy for Article 80 Development Review, developments over 1.5 million square feet are required to develop a Feasibility Assessment to determine the viability of district energy microgrids and combined heat and power for their project site. 

Last updated: March 2020

There are no district energy systems in Boulder.  Boulder’s combined heat and power capacity is 114,000 kW, meaning that the CHP capacity per 100,000 residents is 117 MW. 

Last updated: October 2015

The City of Bridgeport established an Energy Improvement District in accordance to House Bill 7432. The Energy Improvement District is overseen by a 7-member board consisting of the city's chief administrative officer (or his/her designee), director of planning and economic development (or his/her designee), the director of public facilities (or his/her designee), and four electors or representatives of businesses within the boundaries of the district.

Last updated: March 2020

The City of Buffalo operates a district heating system that serves both public and private buildings. The city recently completed a feasibility study and thermal analysis for expanding the system.

Last updated: March 2020

Evergreen Energy is planning a CHP project in Burlington. 

Last updated: October 2015

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Carrboro does not have district energy systems or combined heat and power facilities.

Last updated: April 2014

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

There is one district energy system in Charlottesville, but we could not locate information on the system’s capacity.  Charlottesville does not have combined heat and power facilities. 

Last updated: October 2015

Chicago issued Requests for Proposals (RFP) to install solar farms on seven lots owned by the city. Some of these systems will offer community solar subscriptions.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The City of Cleveland supports two district energy systems operated by the Cleveland Thermal and Medical Center Company. The Clevelad Thermal plant was retrofitted in 2017 to incorporate natural gas combined heat and power. The city has also completed a feasibility study for a microgrid in Cleveland's downtown area, which will incorporate combined heat and power. 

Last updated: March 2020

Colorado Springs Utilities allows customers to subscribe to community solar systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The City of Denver and Xcel Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) titled the Energy Futures Collaboration. The MOU cites microgrid deployment, district energy installation, and other approaches as integral to achieving the city’s climate and energy goals.

The city is also creating a low-income solar garden located at the Denver Arapahoe Disposal Site.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

There are no district energy systems in Dubuque.  Dubuque’s combined heat and power capacity is 9,000 kW, meaning that the CHP capacity per 100,000 residents is 17 MW. 

Last updated: October 2013

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Article XIV of the Hartford Municipal Code created the Energy Improvement District (EID). The purpose of the EID and its board is to enter contracts for the creation of several distributed energy resources.

Hartford's EID recently released a request for proposal for the installation of a community solar system. The EID identified battery storage as a resource that may be included in proposals. 

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Honolulu has issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of a seawater air conditioning project for city-owned buildings in the downtown area.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

JEA, Jacksonville’s municipal utility, runs the SolarMax , a solar subscription service for large commercial customers. JEA also operates solar energy systems that integrate battery energy storage. 

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

There is one district energy system in Knoxville, but we could not locate information on the system’s capacities.  Knoxville’s combined heat and power capacity is 5,000 kW, meaning that the CHP capacity per 100,000 residents is 2.8 MW.  None of the district energy systems integrate CHP.

Last updated: October 2013

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Lawrence does not have district energy systems or combined heat and power facilities.

Last updated: October 2013

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The Port of Long Beach created the Energy Island Initiative, which sets goals of consuming energy from clean sources and installing local, distributed energy with microgrid connectivity. Through the initiative, solar panels have been installed on port facilities and a microgrid is being constructed. 

Last updated: March 2020

LADWP has also created a community solar pilot program. The utility has committed to installing ten megawatts of solar capacity to support the pilot. 

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

There are four district energy systems serving Madison, but we could not locate information on the systems’ capacities.  Madison’s combined heat and power capacity is 187,600 kW, meaning that the CHP capacity per 100,000 residents is 80.4 MW.  One of the district energy systems integrates with CHP.

Last updated: October 2013

Madison entered into an agreement with OneEnergy Renewables to install five community solar installations totaling 14 megawatts of capacity.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

 

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has engaged in developing community solar gardens.

Last updated: March 2020

Montgomery County has pursued several distributed energy resources in its community. Montgomery County houses a CHP plant at the county's Pre-Release Center in Rockville. The county also entered into a public-private partnership to install microgrids at the Public Safety Headquarters and County Correctional Facility. Montgomery County has also installed solar systems on several municipal buildings. The county has also expedited its solar permitting system. Montgomery County released an RFP for two community solar sites at Oaks Landfill.

Last updated: December 2019

The City of Nashville provided land at no cost to Nashville Electric Service, the city’s municipally-owned utility, for the installation of a community solar farm

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

New York City is currently building a district heating system and microgrid at the Red Hook East and West public housing complexes that integrate combined heat and power. The city is also pursuing a microgrid at the Hunts Point Distribution Center that includes solar and energy storage. The New York City Housing Authority also grants access to community solar subscriptions through its ACCESSolar program. 

Last updated: March 2020

Newark entered into an energy performance contract to install combined heat and power into existing energy systems. 

Last updated: March 2020

The City of Oakland has partnered with University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, Lawrence Berkeley Labs, and NASA Ames Research Center to launch the EcoBlock pilot project. The project focuses on the block-scale efficiency of a solar-powered DC microgrid.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

OUC customers may also enroll in a community solar program or participate in the utility’s solar bulk purchasing program OUCollective.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

CHP planning in Park City is conucted as part of the Georgetown University Energy Prize Assessment. 

Last updated: October 2015

PIDC entered into an agreement with Ameresco to construct a microgrid powered by fuel cells and solar energy at the Navy Yard. 

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The City of Pittsburgh currently has two district steam systems and three institutional district energy system, while the city identified four additional opportunities to install district energy systems or microgrids.  The city has also signed a Memo of Understanding with the Danish Energy and Climate Agency to develop the Pittsburgh District Energy Initiative

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020. 

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) runs SolarShares, an off-site community solar program. SMUD offered a first round of community solar enrollment to agency and institutional partners. The City was one of the first participants, and the program now offsets 35% of municipal energy use with solar power.

Last updated: March 2020

Saint Paul has the largest district energy system in North America. The system provides heating and cooling to most buildings in the downtown area.

Saint Paul subscribed to a 3.2 MW community solar system and encourages residents and businesses to subscribe to community solar. 

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

CPS Energy provides technical and planning assistance for residential and commercial systems, but we could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Seattle City Light installed a solar-plus-storage microgrid at the Miller Community Center. The utility plans to use the project as a test case to understand the resilience benefits of the system.

Seattle City Light has developed 5 Community Solar projects with cumulative generating capacity of 170 kW. 

Last updated: March 2020

The City of Springfield supported the creation of a community solar project by serving as an anchor subscriber to the project.

Last updated: March 2020

The city is piloting a community solar program at St. Louis Lambert International Airport.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Syracuse received a grant from NYSERDA for the creation of a microgrid that was integrated with combined heat and power.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.     

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The city has not adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

The District’s Solar for All program aims to expand access to solar power to low-income residents. The program partners with organizations to install on-site solar on single-family homes and community solar projects. For residents to be eligible for participation, household income must be less than 80% of the area median income. 

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

We could not verify if the city has adopted a formal policy, rule, or agreement that supports the creation of clean distributed energy systems.

Last updated: March 2020

Worcester received a grant from the State of Massachusetts to conduct a feasibility study for a solar-plus-storage microgrids. 

Last updated: March 2020