State and Local Policy Database

Location Efficiency

Policies which encourage compact, mixed-use communities improve the overall efficiency of the transportation system. Changes to zoning regulations can direct investment and development toward high density, mixed-use construction around existing transit facilities promoting the creation of walkable, mixed-use communities. Removing minimum parking requirements prevents sprawl and develops compact construction and walkable areas. Complete streets policies foster the increased use of alternatives to driving by creating a comprehensive network of connected streets, sidewalks and bicycle lanes or by connecting transit facilities.

This sub-category includes information on four topics: Adoption of a location-efficient zoning code and its applicability (to the whole jurisdiction or certain neighborhoods); adoption of residential parking policies requiring no more than one parking space per residential unit; formal adoption of a complete streets policy ; incentives in place for location-efficient development and/or policies for disclosure of location efficiency information.

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The Integrated Development Ordinance (IDO), Albuquerque’s zoning code, does not require transit-oriented development, compact or mixed land use development, street connectivity, or form-based zoning. However: there are three zone modifiers – UC, PT, and MS – respectively Urban Center, Premium Transit, and Main Street – that act as overlays to increase building heights, lessen setbacks, increase density, lower parking requirements, and so on. These overlays have the effect of encouraging TOD or other more compact, mixed use forms.

Residential Parking Policies

The IDO reduced parking minimums for most uses citywide compared to the previous zoning code. It also instituted marking maximums for certain uses (large offices and retail) in key Center and Corridor areas. It also carries forward regulations from the old zoning system that eliminate parking minimums in certain neighborhoods in and near downtown, as well as for many uses in pre-1965 buildings. See Table 5-5-1 and Subsection 5-5(B)(2)(a) of the IDO.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The IDO offers an additional story (12 feet of building height) for development in mixed-use zones on pedestrian-oriented corridors and within 330 feet of Premium transit stops as a bonus to encourage compact, mixed-use development. The IDO offers 1-2 stories (depending on zone) for development that incorporates a parking structure (as an incentive for an alternative to large sea of parking). The IDO reduced parking requirements for most uses. The City also has a height bonus in one area (Nob Hill) to allow for 12 additional feet of building height for developments with ground floor commercial space in order to encourage mixed-use development. There is also a provision for Major and Premium Transit Corridors west of the river that in mixed-use zone districts, there have to be commercial uses along at least 50% of the façade of the building if the development includes townhouses or multi-family development. The IDO allows most development to be approved administratively by staff in an expedited process compared to the previous approvals required by Sector Plans in over half the City.

The ABC Comp Plan encourages mixed-use development in Areas of Change and most Centers and Corridors, which can be used to support zone changes to mixed-use zone districts in these areas. Areas of Change and Centers and Corridors are the areas in the city that have been identified as the most appropriate for more dense, intense development and more multimodal transportation options to support that development.

Last Updated: March 2019

Alirngton County's General Land Use Plan encourages location-efficient development throughout the city.  Additionally, this county offers incenctives to encourage compact, mixed-use development such as the Green Building Program Density Incenctive, a form based code to encourage mixed-use development in the Columbia Pike Corridor, and allowable ground floor uses for major planning corridors in Arlington's densest areas. This county has not yet removed minimum parking requirements for new developments. 

Last updated: May 2017

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Atlanta has mandatory neighborhood form-based codes in addition to citywide floating zones that have been in place since 1999. The city also has transit-oriented development-specific codes for the Doraville and Edgewood neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

The City allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Atlanta provides density bonuses to developers who build in Buckhead in an effort to create a denser, more compact neighborhood.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The purpose of the City Center district is to establish an identity for the city through the establishment of a full-service central district with business, residential, employment, and government activities. The district is intended to create a unique place by encouraging the use of special land planning principles and high-quality design. The City Center district is created in recognition of the economic and cultural advantages of an intensive, planned, mixed-use City Center of sufficient size to provide intensive non-residential activities and high-density residential uses.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires 2 parking spaces per dwelling unity.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not determine if the City offers incentives to encourage compact, mixed-use development.

Last Updated: March 2019

 

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Subchapter E of Austin’s zoning code adopted in 2009 includes form-based code elements to ensure street connectivity and mixed-use development in certain neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

The City has removed minimum parking requirements for certain zoning districts (e.g. Central Business District).

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Austin’s Safe, Mixed-Income, Accessible, Reasonably Priced, Transit-Oriented (SMART) housing program provides fee waivers, expedited review, and support to projects that provide certain levels of affordable housing and are transit-accessible. Other incentives can be found here.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Bakersfield’s zoning code does not require transit-oriented development, compact or mixed land use development, street connectivity, or form-based zoning, but the zoning code does include overlay and mixed use as optional for several areas.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires 2 parking spaces per dwelling unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not determine if the City offers incentives to encourage compact, mixed-use development.

Last Updated: March 2019

 

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Transform Baltimore is a citywide transect-based code with a mixed use overlay to encourage the development of mixed-use neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

The City has no minimum parking required downtown or in its main streets/commercial districts. Parking requirements are reduced in transit-oriented development zones as well as those affiliated with historic buildings 50 years or older.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Birmingham has mandatory Downtown and Triangle District form-based codes that were written as optional, but became mandatory in 2007.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires a minimum of one parking space per residential unit in some neighborhoods and one and a half spaces in other neighborhoods.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Articles 87 and 87a of Boston’s zoning code include smart growth overlays to promote compact, mixed-use communities in specific neighborhoods. Article 37 of the zoning code also encourages buildings subject to Large Project Review to integrate transportation demand management measures. Article 80 is a citywide zoning requirement that requires that new developments generate transportation access plan agreements with the Boston Transportation Department.

Residential Parking Policies

Boston has one or more neighborhoods with 0.5 required parking spaces. In downtown districts, “parking freezes” go into effect. Boston has removed minimum parking requirements for the entire city for large projects (those larger than 50,000 sqft subject to Article 80 review) and set parking maxima. The City is reviewing and, in some cases, reducing guidelines for maximum area/parking ratios for new developments in some zones of Boston.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City encourages dense mixed-use development through density bonuses for greener buildings, affordable housing, and transit-oriented development by way of Article 80.

Last Updated: May 2019

Boulder has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood. The city allows one or more parking space per residential unit. Boulder adopted its complete streets policy in 2008, through the Transportation Master Plan. The adoption of the guidelines encourages the inclusion of complete streets principles in all road construction and maintenance projects. As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Boulder provides density bonuses in certain zoning districts where growth is anticipated.

Last Updated: October 2015

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plan states that the city promotes transit-oriented development to enable 10,000 new housing units within Bridgeport's urban core.

Residential Parking Policies

Minimum parking requirements have been removed for all Downtown Village District zones, Office-Retail and Office-Retail-General zones, and Neighborhood Core Village District zones adjacent or Downtown Village District zones. This development was recent and is not reflected in the latest publicly-available amendment to the zoning code.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City has a Commercial Village Overlay District that encourages pedestrian-oriented mixed-use development.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The city's Land Use Plan of 2016 highlights mixed-use development as a land use recommendation and transportation-oriented development. Additionally, the Master Energy Plan highlights the Green Code, which supports transit-oriented-development, mixed-use development, and compact development.

Residential Parking Policies

Per Article 8 of the Buffalo Green Code Unified Development Ordinance, the recently adopted code does not require mandated parking minimums for new developments in the City but does require a minimum number of bicycle parking facilities and a transportation demand management (TDM) plan for new developments of exceeding certain size.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not determine if the City offers incentives to encourage compact, mixed-use development.

Last Updated: March 2019

Burlington has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood. The city allows one or more parking space per residential unit. Vermont adopted its complete streets policy in 2011, through H 198. The adoption of the guidelines encourages the transportation systems of Vermont to include complete streets principles in all road construction and maintenance projects. There are no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Last updated: October 2015

Carrboro’s Land Use Ordinance promotes mixed-use developments in several zoning districts.  To rezone to a Village Mixed Use Development (Sec. 15-176.2), applicants must adhere to 10 mixed-use principles including preservation of open space, pedestrian preference and accessibility, and proximity of uses.  On average, the town requires one or more parking spaces per residential unit.  A complete-streets-like policy is included in the Carrboro Land Use Ordinance (Sec. 15-216).  As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Carrboro provides density bonuses and parking requirement flexibility for location-efficient developments.

Last updated: April 2014

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Charlotte’s zoning code includes both pedestrian and transit-supported overlay districts in an effort to create transit-oriented communities.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires 2 or more parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Charlottesville’s zoning code established mixed-use corridor districts (City Code Chp 34, Art. VI) to encourage location-efficient developments. There are areas around the city that are zoned as Planned Unit Development (allowing for more compact development in neighborhoods), mixed-use zones, and medium and high density areas around the University of Virginia. Parking requirements have been removed in at least three neighborhoods (the Corner, Urban Core, and West Main).  Charlottesville implemented a complete streets policy in 2010. As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Charlottesville provides density bonuses and expedited permitting to developers.

Last updated: October 2015

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Chicago has adopted a Transit-Oriented Development Ordinance.

Residential Parking Policies

The City’s zoning ordinance includes parking reductions for development around transit stations, in some developments parking reduction can be zero.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City offers density bonuses and expedited review of parking requirements for developments choosing to locate in transit-oriented zones. Chicago also has a Neighborhood Opportunity Bonus. This allows zoning bonuses to increase the size of individual downtown construction projects. Developers pay a bonus payment to get a higher floor area ratio (FAR).

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The City’s 2017 Climate Action Plan details several ways in which the City has worked toward transit-oriented and mixed use development.

Residential Parking Policies

Parking requirements still exist in the City.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City offers expedited permitting to increase location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Cincinnati adopted the Cincinnati Form-Based Code in May 2013. Four neighborhoods — College Hill, Madisonville, Walnut Hills and Westwood — will be the first communities to implement this code to support the revitalization of their neighborhood business districts.

Residential Parking Policies

Residential developments with 20 or fewer housing units do not have to provide parking and developments with more than 20 units must provide 0.75 spaces per each housing unit over the 20th unit. In 2018, the Cincinnati City Council voted to eliminate mandatory parking requirements in three dense downtown neighborhoods.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Cleveland recently established its first form-based zoning district, called an urban overlay. The City has been moving more and more toward form-based codes. More info on City Planning policies can be found here.

Residential Parking Policies

Cleveland has removed minimum parking requirements for certain districts. Cleveland also has a Pedestrian Retail Overlay District that allows for reduced parking requirements.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The Columbus municipal planning code includes citywide commercial zoning overlays to encourage pedestrian- and transit-friendly development in existing corridors while traditional neighborhood development zoning encourages a mix of residential types and commercial properties.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires at least 0.75 to 2 parking spaces per residential unit depending on the number of dwelling units per building. There is no parking requirement in the downtown area.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, the zoning code includes the use of tax incentives in the downtown zoning district to attract high-density development to the downtown area.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Dallas’s Chapter 51A Article XIII uses mixed-use districts on the neighborhood scale to implement transit-oriented communities and mixed use development in area plans.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires 2 or more parking spots per single family lodging but allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit in certain areas.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Denver has a form-based/context-sensitive zoning code to encourage mixed uses in urban centers and around transit-oriented development. Form-based elements regulate all building types. The City is currently working on a Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Plan for development that will update and advance these policies by encouraging new developments to consider all transportation modes as opposed to only parking.

Residential Parking Policies

Denver requires 1.25 parking spaces or less per unit in suburban neighborhoods, with a complete removal of minimum requirements in some areas. Downtown developments must provide .75 spaces per unit, with a complete removal of minimum requirements in some areas. The City has recently started implementing parking maximums in several locations with transportation constraints such as the 41st & Fox TOD area. The TDM Plan will identify changes to City rules and regulations that can advance these efforts.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

There are parking reductions allowed within 1/2 mile of 10 high frequency bus routes. The proposed "mix tape" overlay also reduces parking requirements and allows a minimum of 3 stories of residential over 1st floor commercial. There are 2 mixed-use zoning districts that have been implemented.

Residential Parking Policies

In the Central Business District and New Center area, there are no parking minimums.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

2 zoning districts and the proposed Mix Tape overlay allow extra height for mixed-use buildings. These qualities are also selected for through City property development RFPs.

Last Updated: March 2019

Dubuque has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood. Dubuque allows one or more parking space per residential unit. Dubuque adopted its complete streets policy in 2009, through the Historic Millwork District Master Plan. The adoption of the guidelines encourages the inclusion of complete streets principles in road construction and maintenance projects throughout the historic district. There are no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: October 2013

 

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Plan El Paso implements a smart code for the city with a focus on walkable development around the city’s transit stations.

Residential Parking Policies

The City's parking code requires 2 parking spaces per dwelling across the city, with 100% reduction allowed in historic districts and downtown area.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not confirm if there are incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Fort Worth has implemented form-based codes to govern development in the Downtown, Berry/University, Camp Bowie, Near Southside, Panther Island, and Stockyards neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

The City allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit. The City has removed minimum parking requirements and added maximum parking requirements for all non-residential uses citywide.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City has community-wide mixed-use zoning and urban residential zoning categories that offer height and density bonuses. The City has dedicated project facilitators for mixed-use and urban residential development that expedite land development and permitting.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Areas with high transit access and priority corridors have overlays zoned to incentivize greater density and mixed use, including the city's Traditional Business Area, Transit Oriented Development, and other zoning designations. The City’s current form-based zoning ordinance was unanimously approved in 2007 and has been amended in its entirety several times to increase density, add new uses (such as marijuana), and insure that the appropriate urban design adjustments are made to encourage on-street parking and transit improvements. Both pedestrian and vehicular connectivity is required, as is bicycle parking. There are no exclusive single-family zone districts for the entire city. The ordinance was written after an extensive community engagement process with the understanding that if the code properly reflects the public’s desire for walkable, mixed-use, transit-oriented development, then the project should be approved with administrative approval.

Residential Parking Policies

There are no parking minimums, and there are parking maximums for the Downtown and TOD-zoned properties. In all other neighborhoods, there is a parking maximum, and the Planning Director can halve requirements if transit is present, car sharing, shared parking arrangements, on-street parking, and other mechanisms. In 2007 the Zoning Ordinance was re-written; at that time parking numbers were cut in half from pre-2007 numbers (e.g. 2.5 spaces/1,000 square feet instead of formerly 5 spaces/1,000 sq ft).

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Density bonuses are employed to encourage mixed-income housing, affordable housing, and accessible housing.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Provisions on all of these areas were adopted in January 2016 in the Zoning Regulations. Section 5.3 creates a Transit-Oriented Overlay District whose purpose is to “allow greater flexibility and require greater density in the vicinity of fixed nodes of public transportation,” particularly around the fixed stations for the CTfastrak Bus Rapid Transit System (the only BRT system in the state). The regulations require a minimum of 3 stories and a maximum of 14 stories, with a mix of uses that is the same as what is available downtown. This TOD District has already spurred a lot of development.

The TOD District requires more compact and mixed land use development. In addition, the zoning regulations (see Figure 3.2-A) also provide a much broader array of uses than has ever been allowed. It has created, for example, a “Craftsman Industrial” category that allows “maker spaces” (ranging from breweries to printmakers) in nearly every zoning district. The zoning code has at its very core the desire for a variety of uses to coexist and flourish. The form-based code provisions in Chapter 4 of the Zoning Regulations are also focused on compact and mixed-use land development, within the architectural vocabulary that already exists in Hartford. Finally, street connectivity is a significant priority in Hartford. The City adopted a Complete Streets Policy into its municipal code, and in the Zoning Regulations, it has an entire Chapter, Chapter 9, devoted to Complete Streets and street design.

Residential Parking Policies

In 2017, Hartford eliminated all minimum parking requirements for every zoning use (except for car sales lots, which are state mandated). It also imposes maximums on every parking use. The City instead imposes minimum requirements for bicycle parking for all but 1-, 2-, and 3-family uses.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City requires through its Zoning Regulations compact development compatible with existing neighborhoods through Chapter 4 – its form-based code chapter. In addition, the City offers generous density bonuses for downtown and transit-oriented development districts when property owners provide particular amenities (see 4.3.2.E. and 4.4.2.E.). The Regulations also allow a full range of uses that have fast-track permitting (no public hearings) in districts citywide (see Figure 3.2-A).

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Henderson’s zoning code does not require transit-oriented development, compact or mixed land use development, street connectivity, or form-based zoning, but the zoning code does include mixed use as optional for several neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires a minimum of 2 parking spaces per dwelling unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not confirm if there are incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The City has a transit-oriented development (TOD) plan in conjunction with Honolulu’s rail transit system. The TOD special district design guidelines will require sustainable development around 19 or the 21 planned new stations. All projects within the TOD special district or subject to these guidelines.

Residential Parking Policies

The City has not issued parking minimums for new development as part of its zoning codes city-wide, but it is part of the TOD planning. Parking and loading requirements in the TOD Special District are eliminated or greatly reduced to encourage creative use of the property, reduce development costs, and encourage alternative transportation. Pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit riders should be the design priority, and reducing parking is a way to encourage these modes of transportation. There is no parking required for non-residential uses.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As part of the TOD planning, the City offers density bonuses for projects seeking a major special district permit.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Houston has no zoning code. However, Houston does have a tax abatement program and other incentives for transit-oriented and mixed-use development. Chapter 42 addresses Transit Oriented Development. Transit-oriented development is incentivized in identified transit corridors. Street connectivity is required per Chapter 42 intersection spacing requirements.

Setback requirements influence urban form and encourage high-density single-family developments. Optional performance standards encourage reduced setbacks on commercial and transit corridors to improve walkability. Rules are applied according to street type throughout the City rather than by neighborhood. Staff is working on an amendment to Chapter 42 (Walkable Places District) that would allow creation of areas or corridors with mandatory rules for reduced setbacks, transparency on building facades, wider sidewalks and reduced parking. (Chapter 42). Special Parking Areas are overlay districts allowing for reduced parking requirements. (Chapter 26).

Residential Parking Policies

Houston eliminated parking requirements for the Central Business District and is seeking to expand the policy to neighboring areas. Houston currently has minimum parking requirements in the rest of the city. Parking regulations are found in Chapter 26 of the code. Commercial properties with historic designation have a reduced parking requirement as well as properties located on transit corridors if they opt into the performance standards. The Walkable Places District will allow special areas with reduced minimum or maximum parking requirements. This is anticipated to go to City Council in June 2019.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, the city passed Ordinance 2012-739 in 2012, establishing an economic development program called the Downtown Living Initiative Chapter 380 Program. The program promotes economic development and stimulates business and commercial activity in the target area by providing economic and other development incentives for new multifamily residential mixed-use developments. Houston also has a tax abatement program for mixed-use development.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Indianapolis has adopted a Consolidated Zoning/Subdivision Ordinance that encourages compact and mixed-use development. The ordinance includes a provision that allows increased building height for mixed-use buildings that allocate a percentage of floor area toward residential use. Within the next two years, Indianapolis will be pursuing a decarbonized transit-oriented development goal as part of its commitments to the American Cities Climate Challenge. The City will also be pursuing special district zoning in 2019.

Residential Parking Policies

The City has reduced parking requirements in areas located in proximity to public transit. Downtown districts may set their own parking rules.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Indianapolis has two incentives that allow developers to exceed height restrictions if they allocate a set percentage of the space for residential use.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Jacksonville’s Traditional Neighborhood Development ordinance is a citywide form-based ordinance that has been in place since 1987.

Residential Parking Policies

The City allows two parking spaces, at a minimum, for single-family homes, and 1.5 spaces per multifamily unit. There are no minimum parking requirements for the downtown core area.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Kansas City has had a form-based code for its downtown area since 2007. The city also has a traditional neighborhood design district (TND) to create a mixed-use environment with walking as the predominant form of transportation. In addition, the zoning code requires short-term and long-term bike parking for commercial and industrial developments and any residential development in excess of 12 units. The Main Street Overlay was adopted in early 2018 and requires transit-oriented development along the Main Street corridor to correspond with the proposed extension of the Streetcar. Other similar overlays are in place for the Troost Corridor and the Independence Avenue Corridor. The City also has provisions for pedestrian oriented/mixed use development in the Downtown area, exemptions from parking requirements in the Streetcar area, and reduced parking requirements in areas near transit.

Residential Parking Policies

One parking space is generally required per single-family residential unit and 4 spaces per multifamily unit. There are exemptions and reductions for locations within the downtown area, along the proposed streetcar route, within the Crossroads, and in Westport.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Knoxville has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes city wide, but there are form-based codes in the South Waterfront and Cumberland Corridor districts. Several projects have no minimum parking requirements for nonresidential use. Knoxville adopted its complete streets policy in 2009, through Resolution R-287-09. The adoption of the guidelines encourages the inclusion of complete streets principles in all road construction and maintenance projects.

Last updated: October 2015

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The City has two form-based code districts: the South Waterfront and Cumberland Avenue.

Residential Parking Policies

The City's central business district) has no off street parking requirements.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: May 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Las Vegas has adopted individual zoning plans for certain neighborhoods around the city, including the Downtown Centennial Plan and Las Vegas Medical Center Plan, to encourage compact development, and accessibility for pedestrians.

Residential Parking Policies

Las Vegas has not removed minimum parking requirements. Downtown has reduced parking.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City offers an expedited plan check and permitting program in general for applicants. In addition, under the newly adopted Form-Based zoning code, the City of Las Vegas does encourage compact, mixed-use development, including a variety of housing types. As a part of the code’s adoption, and as specified in the Vision 2045 Downtown Las Vegas Master Plan, a new incentive program is under development (including density bonuses for affordable housing and open space, expedited reviews, and bonuses for buildable height and area).

Last Updated: March 2019

Lawrence has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood. The city allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit. Lawrence adopted its Complete Streets policy in 2012. The adoption of the guidelines encourages the inclusion of complete streets principles in all road construction and maintenance projects.

Last Updated: October 2013

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Long Beach has a transit-oriented development code that applies to the downtown and midtown areas.

Residential Parking Policies

The city has reduced parking requirements in the downtown area to 1 space per unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City does provide the state density bonus and provides incentives for sustainability features (i.e. greater height and FAR for LEED or solar) in the Downtown Plan area that is transit rich. It also has higher density allowances and requires mixed-use development in many portions of the Downtown and other areas with high quality transit, including the Midtown area.

Last Updated: May 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Los Angeles has 37 pans and implementation overlays across the city. 15 of these plans are location-efficient, allowing for mixed-use. The city’s forthcoming zoning code overhaul will move the city toward a mixed form-based and use-based zoning model.

Residential Parking Policies

The City requires 2 parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Los Angeles provides density bonuses for affordable housing projects located within 1,500 feet of a transit stop.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Louisville has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood.

Residential Parking Policies

The City’s parking code requires 1 space minimum across urban areas and 2 spaces in suburban areas. A 10% reduction is allowed for development near transit routes. A 30% reduction is allowed if a transportation demand management plan is submitted. A 50% reduction is allowed in Traditional Form Districts. There are no parking requirements in the downtown area. The remainder of the Louisville Metro area has parking maximums.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City has a “Mixed Residential Development Incentive” that allows multi-family dwellings in a single-family zoning district with a density bonus.

Last Updated: March 2019

Madison’s Comprehensive Plan includes the zoning code to encourage location-efficient development applied to the whole city. Madison's zoning code, adopted in 2013, removes parking minimums in 12 districts. Madison adopted its Complete Streets Policy in 2009. The adoption of the guidelines encourages the inclusion of complete streets principles in all road construction and maintenance projects. As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Madison allows reduced parking requirements for infill and redevelopment projects.

Last Updated: October 2015

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

McAllen has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood.

Residential Parking Policies

At this time, McAllen still has parking minimums in place.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Memphis adopted a Unified Development Code in 2010 that incorporates form-based elements and overlays to encourage mixed-use development.

Residential Parking Policies

The City removes minimum off-street parking requirements for certain areas of the city.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Mesa includes requirements for mixed-use districts in its zoning code.

Residential Parking Policies

The City still has parking minimums in place at this time.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Miami 21 is the city’s mandatory, citywide smart code that was adopted in 2009 and uses form-based zoning to encourage smart growth.

Residential Parking Policies

The City allows two parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the City to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The city has adopted an LB3 zoning code to promote compact, pedestrian-friendly development along business corridors.

Residential Parking Policies

Milwaukee does not have required parking minimums for single-family and two-family homes, although it is unclear if there are parking requirements for multifamily housing. Parking requirements are also reduced in some districts of the city that are best served by transit. There are no other incentives available to promote location efficiency.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Milwaukee has development incentive zones in neighborhoods of the city in order to create new development projects that are more compatible with existing development and are pedestrian-friendly.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Minneapolis code incentivizes transit-oriented development, compact development, mixed-use development, street connectivity, and form-based elements.

Residential Parking Policies

Minneapolis requires one parking space per dwelling on average, and has eradicated parking minimums for downtown zones.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient efficiency, Minneapolis has a variety of mixed-use zoning categories, density and FAR bonuses, zoning overlay districts that focus on pedestrian and transit-orientation and site plan review standards. Chapters 548 and 549 of the zoning code include floor-to-area ratio premiums for development projects in downtown zoning districts and density bonuses for commercial districts.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Nashville has mandatory neighborhood form-based codes for the Downtown area. The city also has form-based codes for the rest of the city.

Residential Parking Policies

The city requires 2 parking spaces at a minimum per single-family residential unit. Parking minimum requirements are removed altogether for downtown developments.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Nashville does not have location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

New Haven’s zoning code includes mixed-use district overlays to encourage compact, mixed-use development. 

Residential Parking Policies

We could not confirm if New Haven has removed minimum parking requirements for single-family and two-family homes.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

New Haven does not provide location efficiency incentives or require location efficiency disclosure.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

New Orleans has adopted a comprehensive zoning ordinance which contains provisions that promotes location-efficient development.

Residential Parking Policies

New Orleans requires 1 parking space, at a minimum, per multifamily unit. In certain neighborhoods parking requirements are removed altogether.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

New Orleans does not provide location efficiency incentives or require location efficiency disclosure.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

PlaNYC, New York City’s zoning code, designates a number of special-purpose districts for the creation of mixed-use development in the city. 

Residential Parking Policies

Developers are required to provide less than one/half of a parking space per each new housing unit constructed in NYC with no required parking in multiple dwelling in designated “transit zones.” 

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

To promote construction with a focus on location efficiency, New York City’s R-10 program provides density bonuses to developments in medium- to high-density commercial neighborhoods that provide a certain number of affordable housing units.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Newark’s zoning ordinance is a form-based code.

Residential Parking Policies

Newark has not reduced minimum parking requirements for developers.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Newark does not have location efficient incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The City of Oakland’s 1998 General Plan includes a Land Use and Transportation Element, which directs development to Downtown and areas within a half mile of major transit corridors and commuter train stations. This strategy concentrates development where there is available land and transit, in order to reduce vehicle miles traveled and greenfield development and create compact, walkable neighborhood centers designated as Priority Development Areas in 2013.

Residential Parking Policies

The Downtown Oakland Parking Management Plan includes actions to remove minimum parking requirements from the Zoning Code and to establish maximum parking requirements in the Zoning Code.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Allowable densities are significantly higher in TOD areas, which represent more than 90% of active development in the city.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Oklahoma City does not have a location-efficient zoning code.

Residential Parking Policies

The city requires two parking spaces per residential dwelling.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Oklahoma City does not have location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Omaha’s zoning codes includes requirements for mixed use districts.

Residential Parking Policies

Omaha has not removed minimum parking requirements or added parking maximums for new developments as part of its zoning code.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not confirm if Omaha has location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Orlando’s zoning code includes transect-based zoning as well as form-based zoning. 

Residential Parking Policies

The City of Orlando was the first municipality to incorporate maximum parking standards into their parking code. The city has also adopted a new parking minimum requirement (to one-space per unit) for multifamily properties in Downtown Orlando.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, Orlando provides discounts on impact fees up to 80%. The city also offers a robust density and intensity bonuses for development within mixed-use activity centers; mixed uses are required to obtain bonuses.  

Last Updated: May 2019

Park City has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood. Park City allows one or more parking space per residential unit. Park City has not yet written or codified a Complete Streets Policy. There are no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Last updated: October 2015

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Philadelphia adopted a new zoning code in 2012 that encourages development patterns that reinforce walkability and transit use with a transit-oriented development overlay and mixed use zoning.

Residential Parking Policies

The city’s parking code eradicated parking minimums for multifamily developments in the city center. Row house districts are also not subject to parking minimums.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Philadelphia does not have location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The Phoenix zoning code includes a transit-oriented development overlay district as well as form-based zoning for downtown development. 

Residential Parking Policies

Reductions in parking are allowed in the warehouse, transit, and urban districts. Parking maximums apply for the downtown area.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Properties within the Reinvent TOD policy areas are permitted to rezone to Walkable Urban Code Transect Districts which encourage form-based, compact development with no cap on density.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Pittsburgh has not yet implemented location efficient zoning codes to be used across the city or in any specific neighborhood.

Residential Parking Policies

The city requires one parking space per residential dwelling. 100% parking reductions are available downtown and 25-50% in other areas.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City of Pittsburgh has incentivized a number of criteria such as mixed-use development in the EcoInnovation District. If developers are able to meet certain criteria in the categories of People, Place, Planet, and Performance they are able to access additional density bonuses.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Portland’s zoning code encourages mixed-use and infill development along nearly all portions of the city’s main commercial streets and throughout most of the central city. The zoning map also identifies specific mixed-use centers, consistent with the regional growth plan, Metro 2040.

Residential Parking Policies

There is no parking minimum for developments adding up to 30 units on a site within 500 feet of frequent transit service. There is no parking requirement for affordable units provided anywhere in the city.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

In Portland, under the new 2035 Comprehensive Plan, the vast majority of housing production is in the mixed-use format, so no longer require these incentives.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The Providence Zoning Ordinance update features new transit-oriented development zones to encourage more intensive development on portions of major transit routes.

Residential Parking Policies

The city has no parking minimums downtown, and parking maximums exist in designated transit-oriented development areas.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The City has adopted a development incentives policy that awards building height bonuses in the downtown area to real estate developers.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Raleigh’s Unified Development Ordinance (UDO) contains a Transit Overlay District that encourages compact and mixed-use development by prohibiting a number of low density and vehicle-oriented land uses such as single-family housing and drive-through facilities. The overlay also has a minimum height requirement and allows reductions in minimum parking requirements.

Residential Parking Policies

The UDO reduces the required amount of parking for the Downtown Mixed-Use zoning district, zoning districts with Urban Frontages, the Transit Overlay District, and in contexts where parking reductions are desirable such as near transit stops. Raleigh requires a minimum of one parking space be made available per efficiency residential unit, one space per bedroom, or two spaces per manufactured home. Raleigh requires at least one space be made available per single-family home.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Raleigh does not have location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

We were not able to confirm whether Reno has a city-wide zoning regulation that requires transit-oriented development, compact or mixed land use development, street connectivity, or form-based zoning.

Residential Parking Policies

We were not able to confirm whether Reno has removed or reduced parking minimums in the city.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We were not able to confirm whether Reno has location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

In 2018 the City created a new a new zoning district, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD-1), that promotes mixed-use and higher density along main traffic corridors, specifically along the route. Also, the city’s Zoning Ordinance has overlays that target form-based zoning and street connectivity in specific neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

Richmond’s Zoning Code provides for the creation of Parking Overlay Districts to reduce off-street parking requirements in densely developed areas. In the new zoning district, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD-1), that promotes mixed-use and higher density along main traffic corridors, no parking is required for multifamily buildings with up to 16 units.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Richmond provides for a density bonus for qualifying affordable dwelling units.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

In 2017 the City initiated the Northside Specific Plan, which will contain a form-based code, and is intended to create a walkable community with a variety of mixed-uses. In addition to the City’s existing Downtown Specific Plan, which allows for mixed-use development, the City’s “High Quality Transit Corridor” along Magnolia Avenue supports a broad range of land uses in close proximity to each other, including mixed-use development projects.

Residential Parking Policies

The City still requires one or more parking spaces per residential unit. However, recent changes to the law allow for accessory dwelling units to be constructed behind single-family residences without parking in approximately 90% of the City, and garage conversions on a single-family residential property in these areas do not require the replacement of the lost garage spaces.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

The city provides a density bonus with reduced parking standards for compact, higher density development that provides low-income housing.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The city has a hybrid zoning code; Euclidian and form-based zoning, which supports elements of transit-oriented development.

Residential Parking Policies

Rochester has parking maximums citywide and doesn’t require parking minimums in the center city district and harbor village district.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Rochester offers faster permitting for projects that come in in compliance with zoning for mixed use development.  

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Sacramento’s City Code, including zoning standards, have been updated to further facilitate and incentivize transit-oriented development.

Residential Parking Policies

The city’s parking code removes parking requirements for residential purposes in the central business and arts and entertainment districts. Projects with a transportation management plan may achieve up to 35% reduction. 

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, the city has an infill program that provides developers with flexibility in floor area ratios, height restrictions, and density. Expedited review of development plans is included in the incentive package.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Saint Paul’s zoning code, encourages TOD, compact or mixed-use development and street connectivity in their traditional neighborhood zoning.

Residential Parking Policies

Parking maximums exist citywide and are more stringent along the Green Line light rail. There are no parking minimums in Downtown Saint Paul or in the Green Line Station area zones.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

New development along the Green Line automatically gets a density bonus given that there are no parking minimums. A minimum floor-to-area ratio (FAR) of 0.5 is required in light rail station areas.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Salt Lake City recently updated city zoning codes through the Sustainable Code Revision Project. The adopted zoning codes (Title 21A) increase transit-oriented development, encourage mixed-use development, and codify minimum densities and heights. On average, the city requires one or more parking spaces per residential unit. There are no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Residential Parking Policies

On average, the city requires one or more parking spaces per residential unit

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Salt Lake City does not have location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

San Antonio’s Unified Dwelling Code was adopted in 2006. The code includes use patterns for various forms of smart growth development such as traditional neighborhood development, transit-oriented development, neighborhood centers and conservation subdivisions, new infill development zones, parking caps, and street design and infrastructure options.

Residential Parking Policies

The city allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, the municipal code allows for the creation of transit-oriented development districts where flexibility in development codes is provided for new construction. The city also has an infill program that provides incentives in the form of fee waivers and other financial benefits.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

San Diego’s municipal code includes a transit overlay and urban village overlay for the development of walkable, mixed-use communities. 

Residential Parking Policies

Reduced parking is allowed for studio apartments and in multifamily buildings.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

As an incentive to promote location-efficient real estate development, the Affordable/In-fill Housing and Sustainable Buildings Expedite Program allows expedited permit processing for affordable infill housing developments that have ten or more proposed units and are located within designated urbanized areas.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

San Francisco zoning code has two fundamental components that address density and transit access. The General Plan Housing Element codifies 3 levels of density for residential zoning (low, medium, high). The distribution of these 3 levels is strongly related to public transit resource availability. Additionally, numerous special area plans have been adopted that generally increase the height and density allowed in transit-rich locations and facilitate expansion & improvement of transit infrastructure and services. These are adopted into zoning.

Residential Parking Policies

While San Francisco has had parking maximums in zoning for many years – and eliminated parking requirements for residential, on Dec. 21, 2018, the Mayor signed an ordinance that eliminates minimum parking requirements for all kinds of development citywide. The ordinance went into in January 2019.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

SF Planning offers several density bonus programs that favor greater density than the underlying zoning – particularly for affordable housing.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The Envision San José 2040 General Plan includes a Focused Growth and Form Based Planning Major Strategy that focuses new growth in a compact and mixed-use format to support the development of new urban neighborhoods that maximize the use of transit systems within the region.

Residential Parking Policies

The current zoning code has a separate set of minimum parking rate requirements for downtown that are lower than the rest of the City. In addition, for development projects that meet certain conditions regarding such as transportation demand management (TDM), public parking sharing, and location in growth areas, the number of required parking spaces can be reduced by up to 100% in the downtown area and up to 50% in the rest of the city.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

San José updated its Transportation Analysis Policy in February 2018 to shift its CEQA transportation standard from level of service to VMT. To incentivize compact and infill mixed-use development, San José developed a user-friendly VMT Evaluation Tool (http://www.sanjoseca.gov/vmt) that developers and consultants can use to estimate the VMT levels of their projects in advance of their applications. The tool includes a total of 27 VMT-reducing strategies for developers to select to reduce the VMT levels of their projects, including project density, mix of uses, and intersection density, etc. Additionally, a set of screening criteria were developed under which development projects are not required to prepare a detailed CEQA transportation analysis, thereby facilitating the project’s environmental review. These screening criteria include requirements related to project density, location in planned growth areas, and affordable housing, etc.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The City of Seattle has adopted an Urban Village Strategy as part of the Comprehensive Plan, which identifies and guides growth to those areas of the city that are most able to support growth and reduce GHGs due to existing and planned investments in transportation, parks, business districts, and other amenities. The urban village designations are used to support zoning and investment decisions. Additionally, the Seattle Mixed (SM) zone (chapter 23.48 of the Seattle Municipal Code) allows a mix of residential, commercial, and office uses in former industrial areas. In general, SM is most appropriate in Urban Centers and Urban Villages where density is being concentrated and a high level of transit exists or is planned. Similarly, the pedestrian zone (P Zone) designation is intended to preserve or encourage intensely retail and pedestrian-oriented shopping districts where non-auto modes of transportation to and within the district are strongly favored.

Residential Parking Policies

Seattle requires one parking space be built per residential dwelling, but no parking is required in areas 1/4 mile to transit stations. Parking minimums were recently reduced for transit-oriented development.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Seattle offers exemptions from parking requirements and streamlined environmental review to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

St. Louis’s Ordinance 69199 was adopted in 2012 and creates a new form-based overlay district to be incorporated into a St. Louis zoning code.

Residential Parking Policies

The city allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

St. Louis has no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

St. Petersburg zoning code promotes the creation of mixed use development throughout the city.

Residential Parking Policies

The city’s parking code requires 1 space for units with up to 2 bedrooms; plus 0.5 for each additional bedroom.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not confirm if St. Petersburg has location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Tampa has neighborhood form-based codes for the Greater Seminole Heights Planning Areas, 40th Street, and Tampa Heights neighborhoods.

Residential Parking Policies

The city allows one or more parking spaces per residential unit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Tucson’s zoning code includes a TOD overlay for the city.

Residential Parking Policies

Tucson has not removed minimum parking requirements anywhere in the city.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not confirm if Tucson has any location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Tulsa does not have location-efficient zoning policies.

Residential Parking Policies

We could not confirm if Tulsa has reduced parking minimums anywhere in the city.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

We could not confirm if Tulsa has location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

Virginia Beach requires a form code for the ocean-front neighborhoods. The code is a refinement of the Sasaki Resort Area Plan. The area under this code includes 3.5 miles of oceanfront hotels and related areas.

Residential Parking Policies

The city requires a minimum of two parking spaces per single-family home. 2 spaces are required per multifamily unit for the first 50 units, and 1.75 spaces thereafter.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

There are no incentives available through the city to promote location efficiency.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The zoning regulations permit higher density development areas downtown and along transit corridors. The regulations typically permit a mix of uses in these areas (i.e. residential or office with ground floor retail.) There are some neighborhood specific zoning regulations for large, new neighborhoods where a compact mix of land uses is encouraged.

Residential Parking Policies

The current zoning regulations were updated in 2016 to reduce the number of parking spaces required in areas with high-capacity transit or near bus lines. Parking requirements have been eliminated in downtown zones and cut by 50% for mixed-use or commercial buildings elsewhere if they are within a certain distance of mass transit.

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

DC’s Comprehensive Plan Future Land Use Map designates higher density development areas along transit corridors and typically permits a mix of uses.

Last Updated: March 2019

Location Efficient Zoning Codes

The city’s Commercial Corridors Overlay District’s intent is to encourage compact, pedestrian friendly development that is physically and functionally integrated through site design, dimensional and parking standards that limit parking, provide flexibility for development initiatives and provide incentives for mixed-use development.

Residential Parking Policies

Lower parking minimum requirements and parking maximums are established in the Commercial Corridor Overlay District, which includes downtown and mixed-use neighborhoods radiating out from the downtown along arterial corridors

Location Efficiency Incentives and Disclosure

Worcester does not have location efficiency incentives or disclosure requirements.

Last Updated: March 2019