State and Local Policy Database

Community-Wide Summary

The clustering of unvegetated, impermeable surfaces in cities leads to a phenomenon known as the urban heat island effect. Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy, and also result in negative environmental and public health impacts. Cities can take steps to mitigate the urban heat island effect through policies and programs including those to increase city-wide vegetation and the presence of “cool” surfaces such as reflective roofs and pavements.

This sub-category includes information on two topics: existence of programs, goals, or incentives related to urban heat islands; and the existence of policies or mandates, such as cool-rood requirements or tree-planting ordinances, that enable continual implementation of mitigation strategies.

The city has not adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal.

Section 4-3(B)(2) of the Integrated Development Ordinance allows cluster house zoning if the development preserves at least 30% of the project area’s space or 100% of the space achieved through lot reductions.

Last updated: June 2019

Arlington does not have an urban heat island mitigation goal. Nevertheless, Arlington has a stormwater management ordinance in place for the protection of the Chesapeake Bay. Arlington also has a tree ordinance in place that protects existing trees. 

Last updated: May 2017

The Climate Action Plan includes a goal to increase park land to 7% by 2020 and 10% by 2025 and to increase half-mile proximity to parks to 40% of the population by 2020 and 45% by 2025.

Atlanta has passed a private tree protection ordinance.

The city allows for conservation subdivisions and transfer of development rights that permanently preserves greenspace. 

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal nor if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal.

In Austin, development bonuses are available for private development projects that incorporate green roofs into new projects or that permanently preserve open space. Austin also adopted the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code that requires cool roofs on buildings. Buildings with vegetative roofs, roof top pools, or permanently integrated solar panels on a roof surface are exempt from this requirement. The city’s tree ordinance protects trees on private land designated as heritage trees and trees with a substantial diameter at breast height.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal nor if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

The 2019 Baltimore Sustainability Plan includes a goal to double the city’s tree canopy by 2037.

Baltimore adopted several policies and programs which mitigate the city’s urban heat island effect. In carrying out its obligations under the Maryland Forest Conservation Act, the city has adopted a land conservation policy that requires sites undergoing development to preserve land with at 20,000 square feet of forest, steep slopes, streams, and wetlands. The TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code also provides development bonuses for the permanent preservation of open space. Baltimore’s Variance Policy for Specimen Tree Removal protects trees that are at least 20 inches diameter at breast height.

The city’s Office of Sustainability created the Baltimore Green Network Plan to increase green spaces that achieve more equitable and resilient outcomes for the city.

Last updated: June 2019

As part of its Zoning Ordinance, the city has a conservation subdivisions that encourage the protection of land alongside residential development patterns. We could not find information on whether the city has formally adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal.

Last updated: June 2019

Mayor Thomas Menino created the Grow Boston Greener (now Greenovate Boston) program with the goal of planting 100,000 new trees in Boston by 2020 and increasing tree canopy coverage to 35%.

BPDA’s Article 80 Development Process requires developments over 100,000 square feet to install green infrastructure to retain 1.25 inches of rainfall on site.

Last updated: June 2019

Boulder has an urban forestry program whose activities include a ten-year pruning rotation, planting trees, and a public education campaign on proper tree selection and maintenance of public trees.  Also, the city has a tree planting requirement for new and re-developments and the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan has policies to mitigate the heat island effect, including a strategy to promote environmentally sensitive urban design.

Last updated: October 2015

The city’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plan includes a goal to plant 27,510 trees to reduce residential energy used for heating and cooling.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Green Code requires that new developments incorporate green infrastructure as the first option for stormwater management. Developments may pursue other stormwater management strategies only if green infrastructure proves infeasible.

The Green Code also includes a private tree protection ordinance for trees larger than 6 inches in diameter at breast height.

Last updated: June 2019

Burlington has not enacted specific heat island policies but the city is working to increase green space and plant trees as a heat mitigation strategy.  The city is also creating a Parks Master Plan to guide future maintenance, development, and resiliency of city parks.

Last updated: October 2015

Carrboro has begun to address urban heat islands through the town’s Land Use Ordinance, which limits the impacts from new development.  The most important provision is a 40% open space requirement for residential development.  Since 2010, Carrboro has maintained a 58% tree canopy.

Last updated: April 2014

The City Council formally adopted a goal to increase the urban tree canopy to 50% by 2050.

Charlotte has adopted a private tree protection ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

Charlottesville developed an Urban Forest Management Plan to ensure city trees are appropriately managed and earned a “Tree City USA” designation by the National Arbor Day Foundation for its efforts.  The city also has begun to address urban heat islands through policies.  The city has adopted an incentive to encourage the installation of green roofs on commercial and residential properties. 

Last updated: October 2015

The Climate Action Plan set a goal to install rooftops gardens on 6,000 buildings citywide by 2020 and to plant one million trees by 2020.

Chicago’s Sustainable Development Policy requires new construction projects to integrate low impact development measures or restore natural lands. The city's policy also provides expedited green permits for construction involving a green roof, rainwater harvesting, or a similar measure. The Chicago Energy Efficiency Conservation Code requires new low-sloped roofs to have a minimum 3-year reflectance of 0.5 and medium sloped roofs to have a reflectance of 0.15. Chicago has not adopted a private tree protection ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

The 2017 Climate Action Plan sets a goal to expand the urban tree canopy to 15% by 2020 and 25% by 2035.

The City adopted a Shade Tree policy that includes a 50% tree coverage requirement for parking lots and 10% coverage for landscaped land. If a development project is not able to meet this requirement, it can install light colored surfaces as an alternative.  

Last updated: June 2019

The 2018 Green Cincinnati Plan set a goal to increase the urban tree canopy to 40% coverage and to ensure all residential neighborhoods have at least 30% coverage.

A joint program by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati, and the Cincinnati Office of Environmental Quality provides green roof loans. Title XIV of the city's zoning code allows cluster house zoning in all districts. 

Last updated: June 2019

The city adopted the Cleveland Tree Plan in 2016, and the plan includes a goal to plant 50,000 trees by 2020 and increase the urban tree canopy to 30% by 2040.

The city participates in the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District’s Green Infrastructure Grant Program which has provided grants for incorporating low impact development techniques in site design. The city recently passed a private tree protection ordinance.

The city’s Municipal Building Policy encourages the installation of sustainable roofs on city-owned buildings.

Last updated: June 2019

Green Memo III established an urban heat island mitigation goal to plant 300,000 trees by 2020 and increase the city’s urban tree canopy from 22% to 27%.

The city also offers stormwater service fee credits for private properties that install green infrastructure.

Last updated: June 2019

While the city’s comprehensive plan forwardDallas! does include a broad goal to preserve and increase tree canopy, the city has not adopted a specific quantitative urban heat island mitigation goal.

Dallas adopted the Green Building Program Ordinance which encourages the construction of sustainable buildings through two implementation phases. The first phase focused on encouraging energy efficiency, water conservation and reduction of the heat island effect through cool roofs. The second phase will expand to implement a comprehensive green building standard for all new construction. Newly proposed commercial projects with less than 50,000 square feet of floor area will be required to meet energy efficiency, water conservation, cool roof, and outdoor lighting requirements.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance, but it does not apply to single family residential land. The city has not adopted policies that require or incentivize conservation of private land

The city created the Branch Out Dallas program, which provides trees native to Texas to single family residential properties. The program does not account for energy savings from tree plantings.

Last updated: June 2019

As part of its Game Plan, Denver adopted a goal to have 18% urban tree canopy coverage in the city by 2025.

The city has also passed a private tree protection ordinance.

In 2018, the city adopted a Green Buildings Ordinance that required all new developments over 25,000 square feet to install a cool roof. The ordinance also requires all existing developments of the same size undergoing roof replacements to install a cool roof.

Last updated: June 2019

The city does not have an urban heat island mitigation goal. The city does not have any policies or programs that mitigate the urban heat island affect, but the city’s Water and Sewer Department proposed a stormwater infrastructure ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

We did not find information on programs or policies to mitigate urban heat islands in Dubuque.

Last updated: October 2013

The city does not have a quantitative urban heat island mitigation goal.

The city does grant development bonuses for permanent protection of area wetlands as part of its transfer of development rights policy.

Last updated: June 2019

The city adopted an urban tree canopy coverage goal of 30% through Ordinance 18615-05-2009. The ordinance also protects trees on private property.

Fort Worth has adopted a tree protection ordinance

Last updated: June 2019

The Sustainability Plan includes a goal to increase urban tree canopy coverage to 40% by 2021.

The city’s Vital Streets program incorporates low impact development techniques into street planning and design.

The city has a private tree protection ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Climate Action Plan established a goal to plant 2,500 trees per year and to increase urban canopy coverage to 40%. Additionally, the City of Hartford and KNOX, a local nonprofit, commissioned American Forests to create Hartford’s Urban Tree Canopy Assessment & Planting Plan. The plan includes an urban heat island mitigation goal to plant 20,000 trees in 20 years between 2010 and 2030, increasing the city's tree canopy by 10%.

The City of Hartford’s zoning code includes both incentives and provisions for low impact development. Zoning Code 4.3.2.E.(5) allows density bonuses for developments that include a green roof. Chapter 4 of the Zoning Code also places impervious surface limitations based on the development type. Zoning Code 6.14 requires low impact development on private construction projects, and prohibits developers from altering the project site in a way that would increase the volume of stormwater runoff. Zoning Code 6.14.1.B also requires developments restore the floodplain to its natural purpose where feasible.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal.

Though the use of green infrastructure is not guaranteed, the city does require builders to integrate sustainable elements into the developments, which may include low-impact development and/or land conservation.

Last updated: June 2019

Honolulu has set a goal to increase the urban canopy to 35% coverage by 2035 and to plant 100,000 trees on O’ahu by 2025.

Last updated: June 2019

The Energy Conservation Code requires cool roofs on all commercial buildings, and residential buildings with low-sloped roofs must have a minimum solar reflectance of 0.70 and a thermal emittance of 0.75.

The city provides development incentives for the preservation of open space.

Last updated: June 2019

Thrive Indianapolis included a goal to plant 30,000 trees by 2025 as a means to increase urban canopy coverage, reduce stormwater runoff, and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

The city has also allowed for conservation subdivisions as part of its Consolidated Zoning / Subdivision Ordinance that encourage the permanent protection of land alongside dense residential development patterns. The city also requires that new developments be rated on a Green Factor Scale that assigns points for the of various low impact development techniques in site design. A cool roof policy is included in the city’s Energy Conservation Code. The code requires cool roofs on all commercial buildings.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal.

Jacksonville has adopted a private tree protection policy.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Climate Protection Plan contains an urban heat island mitigation goal to increase urban tree canopy to 40% of the city’s land cover. The city does allow for open space and conservation developments that encourage the permanent protection of land alongside dense residential development patterns. 

The City has adopted the Envision Green Infrastructure Rating System as an integral part of its municipal Green and Sustainable Procurement Policy.

Last updated: June 2019

Knoxville has a Tree Protection Ordinance and a tree management plan to increase the tree canopy and specific diversification.  Also, the Knoxville Utilities Board is installing cool roofs.

Last updated: October 2015

The city has specific zones that require the use of low-impact development strategies, such as permeable pavement and cool roofs.

Last updated: June 2019

The city passed the Urban Forestry Initiative in 2008 (R-26-2008) to improve air quality, reduce the urban heat island effect, and increase quality of life in terms of shade, beauty, and privacy for Las Vegas residents. The initiative includes an urban heat island mitigation goal to increase urban tree canopy coverage to 20% by 2035.

The city requires all non-residential developments greater than one acre in size to use low impact development techniques in site design. The city has not adopted a private tree protection ordinance or policies that require or incentivize conservation of private land.

Last updated: June 2019

Lawrence does not have programs or policies in place to mitigate urban heat islands.

Last updated: October 2013

The I Dig Long Beach initiative set goals to plant 6,000 trees by 2020 and 10,000 trees by 2022. 

The City of Long Beach has passed a Low-Impact Development Ordinance, which requires all new developments and redevelopments that replaces more than 50% of the existing structure to incorporate low-impact development techniques.

Chapter 5.7 of the Southeast Area Specific Plan offers density bonuses to properties in exchange for land conservation measures.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Sustainable City pLAn has set a goal to reduce the local urban-rural temperature differential by at least 1.7 degrees Fahrenheit by 2025 and 3 degrees Fahrenheit by 2035. The city adopted this target because average temperatures in Los Angeles are nearly six degrees hotter than surrounding areas.

The city has adopted requirements for buildings to include cool roofs and low impact development techniques in site design. The city also awards development bonuses for permanent protection of open space through a transfer of development right program.

Last updated: June 2019

The Louisville Urban Tree Canopy Assessment adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal to reach 45% urban tree canopy cover across the city.

The city’s Land Development Code allows for conservation subdivisions that encourage the permanent protection of land alongside dense residential development patterns.

Louisville Metro Government offers a Cool Roof Rebate Program for residential and commercial properties. The city also offers dollar-for-dollar incentives for projects incorporating green infrastructure in development.

Last updated: June 2019

The City of Madison installs green infrastructure, including rain gardens, and trees on medians and terraces during street construction.  Madison also has a policy in place to protect mature trees and encourages green roofs on private development. 

Last updated: October 2013

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal nor if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

In the Sustainable Shelby Plan, Memphis and Shelby County have stated goals to develop an urban forestry program, hire a fulltime urban forester to audit the current system, develop a tree master plan, and create an initiative to plant 5,000 street trees per year. In late 2014, Memphis completed a regional tree canopy study with the University of Memphis and the Wolf River Conservancy. In 2015, the city also adopted the regional Greenprint plan that establishes a unified vision for a region-wide network of greenspaces.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal nor if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

The Tree Master Plan adopted a goal to increase urban tree canopy coverage by 30% by 2020.

Miami requires cool roofs, per Section 3.13 of the city’s Development Code. Additionally, the city has a private tree protection ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

The ReFresh Milwaukee Sustainability Plan includes a goal to double urban tree canopy coverage to 40% by 2023.

For both public and private developments, Milwaukee requires developers to install green infrastructure to capture the first half-inch of rainwater on-site. The city also provides incentives for the installation of green infrastructure.

Last updated: June 2019

Minneapolis does not have a quantifiable urban heat island mitigation goal, but both the city’s Climate Action Plan and 2040 Comprehensive Plan state broad intentions to increase the urban tree canopy.

Minneapolis has adopted land conservation requirements which mandate that real estate developers permanently preserve open space if a residential development results in a net increase of residential dwellings for the city. The Minneapolis Stormwater Utility Fee Credit System allows credits for various low impact development practices such as green roofs, vegetated swales and rain gardens.  

Last updated: June 2019

Nashville’s Urban Forestry Master Plan has includes quantitative urban tree canopy goals for different neighborhoods within the city. Additionally, the Livable Nashville Recommendations include a goal to stop net-tree loss by 2020 and plant 500,000 trees by 2050.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance. The city requires that sites undergoing construction use low impact development measures in accordance with the city’s Low Impact Development Manual. The city also allows for cluster subdivisions that encourage the permanent protection of land alongside dense residential development patterns.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal nor if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

New Orleans does not have a quantitative urban heat island mitigation goal.

The city has incorporated urban heat island mitigation policies into the city’s zoning code. Article 5.8.C requires project sites to incorporate low-impact development techniques and grants development bonuses for such. Article 23.10 requires private trees be protected in development sites. Article 5.5.B promotes the protection of land along dense residential developments.

Last updated: June 2019

New York City’s One City: Built to Last plan has a goal to coat 10 million square feet of rooftops white by 2025 to mitigate the effects of the city’s urban heat island.

The city installs cool roofs at no cost to qualifying building owners through the NYC CoolRoofs Program. The city also provides cash and property tax incentives to property owners that agree to permanently protect undeveloped land through the city’s Conservation Easement Program.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Sustainability Action Plan includes a goal to double the city’s tree canopy.

We could not verify if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

The city does not have a quantifiable urban heat island mitigation goal, but Priority Actions 15 and 24 of the city’s Energy and Climate Action Plan state the intention to update building codes to include requirements for high albedo surfaces and develop an urban forestry master plan.

Title 16 of Oakland’s code and Oakland’s Creek Protection, Stormwater Management & Discharge Control Ordinance addresses stormwater management, tree protection, cool roofs, and low impact development standards.  

Last updated: June 2019

Policy area G-29 of planOKC, the City’s comprehensive plan, includes actions to reduce the urban heat island effect such as establishing a minimum canopy coverage over paved surfaces, creating a “continuous canopy” requirement for new infrastructure developments, and emphasizing green building and roofing materials and practices.

Last updated: June 2019

We could not verify if the city has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal.

The city requires developers use low-impact development best management practices to capture the first half-inch of runoff.

Last updated: June 2019

The Community Sustainability Action Plan’s Livability chapter includes a goal to increase the urban canopy coverage to 40% by 2040.

The city provides development bonuses for buildings that exceed the minimum environmental sustainability requirements, such as energy efficiency enhancements, stormwater design, and solar and/or other renewable energy installation.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance. The Southeast Orlando Sector Plan Development Guidelines and Standards protect urban wetlands from development beyond what is currently required by state law.

Last updated: June 2019

Park City does not have programs or policies in place to mitigate urban heat islands.

Last updated: October 2013

The Greenworks plan has an urban heat island mitigation goal to increase tree canopy by 30% in the city by 2025.

Philadelphia offers green roof incentives to support private use of green roofs, which can also be used to meet stormwater regulations. The city passed Bill 090923 requiring certain new buildings to have highly reflective cool roofs. The city also provides building height bonuses in exchange for preservation of open space.

Last updated: June 2019

The city has adopted a Tree and Shade Master Plan that includes an urban heat island mitigation goal to increase the city’s urban tree canopy to 25% of land area by 2030.

The City of Phoenix updated its complete streets policy to increase green infrastructure in 2018.  

The city and Salt River Project operate a private tree planting program. Through the program, residents are offered free shade trees to be planted in energy-saving locations. Participants are also required to attend a workshops on tree maintenance.

Last updated: June 2019

Pittsburgh’s Urban Forest Master Plan has an urban heat island mitigation goal to increase urban tree canopy cover to 60% by 2032.

The city requires development projects receiving more than $1 million in public funds (or developments not receiving public funds but that are greater than 10,000 square feet) to incorporate low impact development practices in their site design and construction.

Last updated: June 2019

Portland has urban heat island mitigation goals in its 2015 Climate Action Plan to reduce the city’s impervious surface area by 600 acres and increase the urban tree canopy to cover at least one-third of the city by 2030.

The City has a stormwater manual that requires all new development to manage 100% of stormwater onsite. Green infrastructure strategies such as rain gardens, ecoroofs and bioswales are key compliance methods.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance and other polices for new construction that require tree planting.

The City’s Green Building Policy requires ecoroofs on public projects.

Last updated: March 2019

Sustainable Providence establishes the city’s goal to increase Providence’s tree canopy from 23% to 30% and places priority on planting trees in low canopy neighborhoods. The City is tracking progress via the Dashboard.

The city has adopted a development incentives policy that awards building height bonuses in the downtown area to real estate developers that preserve open space. The city has also adopted a private tree protection ordinance for trees measuring 32-inches or more at diameter at breast height.

Last updated: June 2019

Planning Raleigh 2030 includes a goal to maintain tree canopy coverage along 50% of all sidewalk planting strips.

 The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance. The city has also allowed for conservation subdivisions as part of its Unified Development Ordinance that encourages the permanent protection of land alongside dense residential development patterns.

Last updated: June 2019

We did not find any policies or strategies that aim to reduce the UHI effect, however the city states the intention to increase their tree canopy in the Master Plan.

Last updated: June 2019

The city does not have a quantifiable urban heat island mitigation goal.

The city has passed Ordinance 2012-201-199 that fast tracks building and related permits for development projects that include a green roof.

Last updated: June 2019

Riverside established a goal to plant at least 1,000 trees in city parks and right-of-ways and 3,000 trees on private property annually through Goal 12 the Green Action Plan.

The city’s zoning code requires the preservation of existing trees with a trunk of 6 inches or more and requires private property owned to plant shade trees. The zoning code also includes a subdivision conservation ordinance that developers can use for conservation purposes.

Last updated: June 2019

The Climate Action Plan identifies trees, parks, and open space as strategies to mitigate the urban heat island effect.

The city does not have any policy or programs that mitigate the urban heat island effect, but the city has developed the “Sustainable Practices for Building Owners and Occupants” guidebook and the “Green Infrastructure Retrofit Manual”.

Last updated: June 2019

The 2035 General Plan includes a goal to plant 1,000 trees annually until the city achieves 35% urban canopy coverage.

The City Code includes a private tree protection ordinance.

SMUD offers free private tree plantings through the Free Shade Tree Program. The program provides homeowners with free trees only if the tree meets a baseline energy savings goal.   

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s 2040 Comprehensive Plan set a goal to increase urban tree canopy coverage to 40% outside of the downtown area and to 15% within the downtown area.

St. Paul does not have any urban heat island mitigation policies or programs, but the city has released the Strategic Framework for Community Resilience, which states the intention to address stormwater management through green infrastructure.

Last updated: June 2019

Salt Lake City’s Urban Forestry Program aims to increase the number of trees community-wide by 2% annually.

The city does allow for cottage development zoning within its form based zoning code that encourage the permanent protection of land alongside dense residential development patterns. Salt Lake City has also adopted a private tree protection ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

The SA Tomorrow Sustainability Plan established a goal to increase the urban tree canopy coverage to 40% by 2040.

The city has a private tree protection ordinance. The city also grants density bonuses for developments that preserve open space.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Climate Action Plan establishes an urban heat island mitigation goal to increase urban tree canopy coverage to 15% of the city’s land by 2020 and to 35% by 2035.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Climate Action Strategy includes a goal of increasing the tree canopy of the urban forest to 25% of city land area by 2030.

The city has adopted a Better Roofs Ordinance which requires new residential, commercial, and municipal buildings to have either green roofs or roofs with solar systems. The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Stormwater Management compliance guidelines require developments of over 2,500 square feet to use green infrastructure.

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Green Vision plan includes a goal to plant 100,000 new trees by 2022.

San Jose passed two policies pertaining to low-impact development requirements. Policy 6-29 requires new and redevelopment projects that create or replace 5,000 square feet or more of impervious surfaces must incorporate low impact development techniques. Policy 8-14 requires that projects that are both greater than one acre in size and in proximity to creeks ensure post-development flow rates are equal or less than pre-development flow rates.

The city has also adopted requirements for the protection of private trees.

Last updated: June 2019

Seattle’s 2013 Urban Forest Stewardship Plan includes a goal to increase the city’s urban tree canopy from 23% land cover to 30% by 2037.

Seattle incorporated the Green Factor into its city code. The Green Factor is a score-based landscaping standard that requires new developments to integrate green infrastructure practices such as green roofs, rain gardens, and swales into the development.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance.

The city grants floor area bonuses for developments that preserve and/or provide open space amenities as part of a transfer of development rights policy.

Last updated: June 2019

St. Louis is a member of the Green City Coalition, which runs the Urban Greening Program. The Program has a budget of $13.5 million to spend on demolishing vacant and abandoned buildings as a means to reduce impervious surfaces while also restoring the Bissel Point Watershed. 

Last updated: June 2019

The ISAP includes goals to achieve no net loss of wetlands, streams or shoreline buffers; maintain natural resource acreage at 20 acres per 1,000 residents or 11.5% of total land area; ensure 85% of the city’s population lives within 1/3-mile of green infrastructure.

St. Petersburg has adopted a private tree protection ordinance.

The city also banned any alterations of wetlands, excluding restoration projects. The city requires developments that destroy wetlands to create a new wetland that is at least twice the size of the previous wetland. 

Last updated: June 2019

The city’s Urban Forest Management Plan includes a goal of no net loss of tree canopy cover for the entire city and has also established individual neighborhood tree canopy goals for each of the city’s municipal districts.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance. The city also allows for cluster residential subdivision zoning that permanently protect land alongside dense residential development patterns as part of its Site Plan Zoning District Procedures Ordinance.

Last updated: June 2019

Chapter 3 of Tucson’s Sustainability Plan includes a goal to reduce the urban heat island effect by using native plants and trees to mitigate the effect. We could not find a quantitative goal.

The city adopted a Green Streets Policy that requires the use of green infrastructure whenever feasible. 

Last updated: June 2019

Tulsa’s 2016 Urban Forest Master Plan established a goal to increase the city’s tree canopy to 30% by 2036.

We could not verify if the city has adopted policies that target reductions in urban heat island effects.

Last updated: June 2019

Virginia Beach has adopted an urban heat island mitigation goal to achieve 45% urban tree canopy cover citywide by 2023 in its Urban Forest Management Plan.

The city provides tax incentives for the permanent preservation of open space and forest.

Last updated: June 2019

The Sustainable DC plan includes a goal to increase urban tree canopy coverage to 40% by 2032. The city also has a goal to increase wetland acreage by the Anacostia and Potomac rivers by 50%. The Climate Ready DC Plan also includes broad goals to increase low impact development (LID) practices citywide.

The city has adopted a private tree protection ordinance.

Washington has extensive low-impact development (LID) requirements and incentives. The District requires real estate development projects to use LID techniques to achieve a required green area ratio. DC’s Construction Code also requires the installation of cool roofs. The District incentivizes green roof installation through the RiverSmart Roof Rebate Program. Through this program, the city offers rebates of $10 to $15 per square foot for voluntary green roof installation. The District further incentives the installation of LID through the Stormwater Retention Credit Trading Program. This program allows developments that use LID practice or remove impervious surfaces to earn revenue by selling Stormwater Retention Credits through the Department of Energy & Environment.

Last updated: June 2019

The city does not have a quantitative urban heat island mitigation goal, but the Climate Action Plan acknowledges strategies to mitigate the urban heat island effect.

We could not verify if the city has policies or programs that mitigate the urban heat island effect.

Last updated: June 2019