State and Local Policy Database

Water Services

The actions of water utilities play an important role in the efficiency of a community. Considerable energy savings can be gained from improvements made to pumps and motors, and a significant, often uncaptured, opportunity exists for energy generation in processing wastewater. Beyond efforts to directly conserve energy, energy demand can also be reduced through investments aimed at reducing water demand.

This sub-category includes information on four topics: energy and water efficiency programs jointly offered by the energy and water utilities to address energy and water efficiency, or single programs that address both water and energy; community-wide water savings targets and progress towards these goals; energy efficiency target, comprehensive energy efficiency strategy or energy efficiency initiatives in place at water and/or wastewater utility; waste energy capture at wastewater facilities (self-generation through methane capture or other means of on-site use of captured energy resources).

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (Water Authority) provides water and wastewater service to the residents of the City of Albuquerque. In 2016, the Water Authority adopted a 100-year water management plan, Water 2120, that includes 12 policies that address water management and resources; Policies E and K include sub-policies that address energy efficiency, green stormwater, and water savings. The Water Authority understands that green energy and efficient energy programs translate into water conservation In line with the policies and goals of Water 2120, the Water Authority has a program to increase energy and water efficiency at multi-family buildings in the City. To meet the energy efficiency goals, the Water Authority Conservation team has an agreement with the electrical utility, PNM, to promote efficient energy use at these buildings through education and infrastructure.

In 2018, the Water Authority adopted an updated Water Conservation Plan which sets a new usage goal of 110 gallons per capita per day (GPCD) by 2037. Currently, the water usage is 128 GPCD which translates into a reduction of approximately 1 gallon per person per day in order to meet the conservation usage goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Water Authority is in the process of developing its Environmental Plan, which includes sub-policies to incorporate energy efficient practices into the long-term plan for the Water Authority. Additionally, the Decade Plan for the Water Authority identifies projects that will increase energy efficiency and alternative energy sources.

Methane capture at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) supplies power to the WWTP and periodically is able to meet the energy demand of the WWTP with methane capture alone. The Water Authority has identified improvements to the digesters and treatment system to continue to increase efficiency and maximize energy generated through biogas/methane capture. Additionally, the Water Authority recently completed a study to look at feasibility and possible benefits of incorporating Fats, Oils, and Grease (FOG) collected commercially to increase biogas energy generation while simultaneously addressing an ongoing operation and maintenance issue of FOG in the wastewater.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

Arlington County has not yet established a water efficiency target, nor does it have a partnership with the wayer utility to offer joint efficienct programs. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Arlington’s wastewater treatment plant is discussed extensively throughout the County Operations Energy Plan, This plant has a 10% efficiency improvement target by 2020. However, this plant does not currently self-generate energy for on-site consumption.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Urban Forest Master Plan includes policies to encourage green infrastructure and manage stormwater runoff. 

Last Updated: May 2017

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the energy and water utilities do not offer joint efficiency programs, the Office of Water Efficiency does offer water efficiency programs. For example, they offer Water Saver Kits available to water customers. Each kit contains a showerhead, faucet aerator, and toilet-leak-detection tablets. The City of Atlanta offers rebates for high-efficiency toilets for residential and multifamily units. Through an innovative program called Care and Conserve, the City offers water bill payment assistance, plumbing repair assistance and water conservation counseling to approximately 500 low-income households annually. The City has also launched a Water Efficient Restaurant Certificate Program to help restaurants become more water efficient.

The City has also adopted a goal of achieving a 20% reduction in per capita citywide water consumption below its 2009 levels by 2020. We are unable to confirm at this time if the City is on track to meet this goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Under the Power to Change initiative, all city facilities, including the Department of Watershed Management facilities, are striving to meet a 20% energy reduction below 2009 levels by 2020. The RM Clayton wastewater treatment facility’s combined heat and power system converts waste biogas into energy, which is used on-site.

Last Updated: April 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

At this time, the energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. Aurora Water strives to achieve a 10% reduction in GPCD by 2040. This goal is similar to the 2007 goal of a 10% reduction by 2032.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Staff used the DSS model to confirm that a 10% reduction is an achievable goal and to estimate the breakdown of savings by customer class. We could not confirm if Aurora Water has set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies or if the city’s water system self-generates its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Austin Water partners with Austin Energy and Texas Gas Service’s weatherization assistance programs to provide low and moderate-income customers with water and energy efficient fixtures. In 2014, Austin’s city council adopted a goal to reduce total water use to 140 gallons per capita per day (GPCD) and residential water use to 85 gallons per capita per day by 2024. This is an advancement of their 2007 and 2010 water saving goals. Austin Water’s multi-faceted conservation program coupled with a strong response by Austin residents has the utility on track to meet or exceed those goals. In 2017, total water use was 126 GPCD and residential water use was 71 GPCD.

Austin implements tiered water pricing and also offers rebates for residential customers such as WaterWise landscaping, rainwater harvesting, free shower heads, and other products and actions. There are also rebates available for businesses including rainwater harvesting and commercial process rebates. In November 2018, Austin City Council adopted Water Forward, an integrated water resource plan that includes a suite of demand- and supply-side options to address Austin’s water needs over the next 100 years and ensure long-term water availability through a variety of climate conditions. The Water Forward plan includes a 2025 target of 6,970 AF of additional water savings from demand management strategies (including onsite reuse).

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Austin Water tracks its energy efficiency at the facility, process, and system levels with a goal of 3% reduction in kilowatt-hours consumed per million gallons (kWh/MG) per year until 2020. Operational optimization and capital improvements both contribute to regularly meeting these goals. Since 2012, Austin Water has also been transitioning to 100% renewable energy through participation in Austin Energy’s Green Choice program, which supports the purchase of renewable energy. The Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant recently upgraded an old combined heat and power (CHP) facility. Since March 2013, this new facility has been generating 100% of its heat and electricity demand through combustion of the ~700,000 cubic feet per day of biogas produced onsite through anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

SoCal Gas does not partner with the local water utility in the City of Bakersfield on energy efficiency programs, but it does partner with the City of Bakersfield through the Kern Energy Watch Partnership, which promotes comprehensive sustainability including water conservation and solid waste management. PG&E does not partner with the City but does offer water-efficiency measures in several of its Residential and Industrial/Agriculture EE programs. At this point, the City of Bakersfield has not established a water savings target or goal, but it does have several strategies it follows to conserve water.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

California Water Service Co., which serves other cities beyond Bakersfield, has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies, but it has implemented several energy reduction strategies for the water plants serving Bakersfield. We could not determine if the city’s water system self-generates its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the Department of Public Works has not yet established a water efficiency goal and does not have any funded programs to help customers save water, it is currently working on developing a water conservation plan. Additionally, Blue Water Baltimore does provide free water audits and rebates for rain barrels, green roofs, and other conservation landscaping to all city residents. The energy utility does not provide efficiency programs alongside the water utility. The Department of Public Works has also launched their BaltiMeter project, which aims to replace water metering infrastructure and upgrade the meter reading system.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Department of Public Works has not set an energy efficiency goal for water operations, nor has it established programs to expand energy efficiency through the Baltimore water services system. However, Baltimore’s Back River wastewater treatment facilities do have a system to generate 3 MW of energy to be used on-site from methane recapture.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the water and energy utilities do not provide water efficiency programs, Birmingham Water Works does provide this list of helpful tips for saving water at home. Currently, Birmingham Water Works does not have a specified goal for water efficiency.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City of Birmingham has not yet established a goal or comprehensive strategy for energy efficiency in its municipal water service operations. We could not confirm if any of the city’s Wastewater Treatment Facilities self-generate energy that is used on site.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Boston Water and Sewer Commission (BWSC) and Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) fund water efficiency programs available to all water customers. While BWSC does not directly issue rebates and incentives under the MassSave program, Boston’s energy utilities—National Grid and Eversource Energy—do offer rebates and incentives for water saving technologies. Notably, Boston customers are offered no-cost water-efficiency kits that include kitchen and bathroom faucet aerators, low-flow replacement showerheads, water-efficiency gauges to test showerheads and sinks, and dye tablets to check for toilet leaks. Water demand in the MWRA territory has decreased by nearly a third since the 1980s, in part through efficiency initiatives. Although no community-wide water savings target have been adopted by the city or its utilities, the MWRA has a comprehensive, long-term strategy for water savings as described in their 2013 Water System Master Plan.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

MWRA has completed energy audits at 33 of its 36 major facilities. Audit recommendations and other process optimization efforts are estimated to save almost $2 million annually as part of the Long-Term Sustainability Program. MWRA continues to reduce its electrical demand by optimizing process operations and renewable generation—including wind, solar, hydroelectric and biogas—and implementation of energy efficiency measures. Over the past 5 years, they have achieved a reduction of over 10% or a total of 18M kWh. Recently, MWRA entered into a memorandum of agreement with Eversource to identify and implement energy efficiency opportunities throughout MWRA's day-to-day operations and construction programs, and also to achieve higher rebates from the utility for implementing energy efficiency projects. MWRA also calls out Environmental Sustainability as a key strategic priority in their Five-Year Strategic Business Plan for FY 2016–2020. These initiatives include continuing to audit all facilities on their regular audit schedule, optimization of processes, cost effective renewable energy deployments, continued maximization of GHG reductions and fully leveraging all available utility rebates and incentives for energy efficiency. Finally, MWRA self-generates approximately 33 million kWh/year from methane capture at the Deer Island wastewater treatment plant.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

Boulder has set a goal to reduce water use by 20% from 2000 levels by 2035. Boulder Water Utilities offers a Water Conservation Program including a Toilet "Freebate," rebates for drip kits and timers, xeriscaping garden seminars, low-cost xeriscaping plants called "Garden-in-a-box”, free outdoor irrigation audits and free commercial water assessments. The Water Conservation Program also supports municipal water conservation efforts and analyzes city water loss information.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Boulder has set an energy efficiency goal for water services in municipal operations in the energy performance contract. Since 2000, Boulder has reduced energy use in municipal water operations by 25%. There are methane recapture facilities on Boulder’s wastewater treatment plants.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Boulder has implemented a stormwater charge/flood management fee for all multifamily housing to fund the city’s flood and stormwater utility fund.   Stormwater efforts include a requirement for education and outreach and public involvement in addition to inspection/enforcement.  The Keep It Clean Partnership effort which focus on stormwater outreach and education as managed by the city. 

Last Updated: October 2015

City-wide water efficiency and goals

At this time, neither Southern Connecticut Gas nor United Illuminating Co. offers joint energy and water efficiency programs with Aquarion Water Company, Bridgeport’s local water utility. At this point, the City of Bridgeport nor its water utility has established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The wastewater utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies, but it does purchase new energy efficient equipment when old equipment is at the end of its use cycle. For example, two blowers for the aeration system were recently replaced with one high efficiency blower to save $250,000 per year in electricity. The city’s water system currently does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

At this time, neither National Grid NY nor National Fuel Gas partners with the Buffalo Water Department to offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of Buffalo has not established a water savings target or goal. The Water Board had an energy audit preformed and is near-completion in its Energy Performance Construction Contract, which implemented many recommendations including new pumps, HVAC, and lighting upgrades or replacements.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Buffalo Sewer Authority, a public benefit corporation of the City of Buffalo that serves more than 550,000 residents over a collection system area of 110 square miles, produces energy through its water treatment processes. Methane gas generated during the digestion process is captured for use in the boilers and incinerators to reduce the reliance on natural gas. More information is available online. Buffalo Sewer Authority released an RFQ in December 2018 to explore engineering options for harnessing capacity of digestion infrastructure to increase energy generation while reducing landfill waste streams in the region.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

To increase community-wide water efficiency, Burlington City Council passed a resolution to waive all building, electrical, and zoning permit fees associated with the installation of thermal hot water equipment for one year.  Also, Burlington Electric provides low-flow faucets and shower heads for multi-family housing units. There is no established water efficiency target.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The City of Burlington has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. There are no programs or policies in place to increase energy efficiency through the Burlington water system.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There are no policies, programs, funding, or incentive structures in place to encourage green infrastructure stormwater management in Burlington

Last Updated: October 2015

Water Efficiency

The Orange Water and Sewer Authority enacted a conservation policy to develop, fund, and implement cost-effective water conservation and demand management programs.  We could not confirm if the utility has established explicit water efficiency targets.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Though an energy-savings target has not been set, the Orange Water and Sewer Authority adopted a sustainability resolution in 2007 that included an objective to increase energy efficiency in operations; the authority also included a goal to develop an energy plan in their three-year strategic plan.  At their wastewater treatment plan, boilers use biogas captured from the treatment process. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

There is no funding in place to implement green stormwater infrastructure and we could not find information regarding locally enacted policies, rates, or incentives to encourage green infrastructure on private properties to manage stormwater.

Last Updated: April 2014

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs, the city’s WaterSmart program encourages the efficient use of water for indoor and outdoor purposes and offers consumer low-flow plumbing devices, smart irrigation controls, and other products.

Charlotte Water is an active member of the Catawba-Wateree Water Management Group, which released a River Basin Water Supply Master Plan in 2014. This plan includes an evaluation of numerous options to extend the available water supply in the region, and long-term basin-wide strategies to ensure sustainable and efficient water supplies for decades.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Currently, Charlotte Water is tracking internal monthly energy use for the wastewater and water treatment plants with an internal target of collecting three years of data in order to set improvement goals. Charlotte Water has a goal to increase the number of smart irrigation devices installed by residents by 5% and increase the number of individuals reached through public events and conservation education efforts by 10%. In 2016, Charlotte Water installed 283 smart irrigation devices and reached 27,605 individuals with public events and conservation education efforts. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

Charlottesville funds several rebates for water efficiency, including a rain barrel rebate and WaterSense toilet rebate.  The city has not adopted a formal water savings target, but reductions have been incorporated into routine practices by retrofitting municipal buildings with high-efficiency fixtures and installing rainwater harvesting systems at municipal facilities. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Charlottesville does not have a specific energy efficiency target for its operations of its public utilities, but the regional wastewater utility has pursued initiatives to save energy at its Moores Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant.  The wastewater treatment plant also uses biogas captured from the treatment process to generate electricity onsite. 

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Charlottesville adopted a stormwater utility fee and credit program to encourage the incorporation of green infrastructure onto private properties to manage stormwater.  The fee will also increase capital funding for green stormwater infrastructure. 

Last Updated: October 2015

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although Chicago’s water and energy utilities do not run joint water and energy efficiency programs, Chicago’s city-run MeterSave program provides significant incentives to the community. Through the MeterSave program, the city’s Department of Water Management (DWM) supplies a free water meter to unmetered residents and business customers and guarantees bills will be lower than the estimated rate for 7 years post installation. The City of Chicago also offers rain barrels and indoor or outdoor conservation kits to homeowners.

The City of Chicago has a goal to decrease water use by 2% annually, according to the Sustainable Chicago 2015 plan. The City of Chicago also has a program to aggressively replace old water mains, thus reducing water loss from leaking pipes. Through Building a New Chicago, DWM is replacing 900 miles of water main—most of which are over 100 years old—over a 10-year period. DWM has now installed more than 135,000 meters on homes since 2001. By City ordinance, commercial buildings are required to install their own during construction. The City has now replaced over 550 miles of water main under its current capital program and will meet its goal of replacing 900 miles by 2021.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Both the Department of Water Management (DWM) and Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRD) have extensive programs to increase energy efficiency across operations and are pursuing energy efficiency initiatives. DWM is converting several steam-powered turbines and boilers at five pumping stations in the water distribution system to electricity, saving more than $6.4 million/year in energy costs, with additional savings from lower operating costs, and a greenhouse gas emission reduction of 75%. The conversion of the pumping stations from steam to electricity are part of the “Building a New Chicago” program. The Springfield Pumping Station was fully converted from steam to electricity in 2017. The energy efficient station has reduced its carbon footprint and will save an estimated $4M annually with improved reliability and efficiency. The Central Park Pumping Station began construction in Dec 2018 for a similar conversion. The department estimates an annual savings of $4.5M in energy and maintenance expenses.

MWRD has also implemented a sewer thermal heat and cooling system to save energy at its water reclamation plant, where methane is also collected for electricity generation. Moreover, the MWRD operates several anaerobic digesters, generating up to one-third of its energy from the digestion process. A new project will divert 440 tons a day of food waste from the city of Chicago’s solid waste stream, feed it into the digesters at the Calumet treatment plant in Chicago, generate 160% more methane gas, and sell some of this gas back into the natural gas pipeline.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Chula Vista is served mainly by two water agencies, Otay Water District and Sweetwater Authority. Otay Water District works with SDG&E regularly to evaluate the most cost-effective rate plans and leverages incentive plans when possible. Some of the incentive plans include the use of green energy and equipment modifications. Sweetwater Authority has and continues to partner with our local energy partner to promote water and energy efficiency measures. These events include community fairs, community tailgates, and lighting exchange events. Sweetwater Authority provides device-based rebates to consumers for water and energy and ensures these devices meet or exceed current Watersense and EPA benchmarks for efficiency. This measure is a network of multiple agencies that include Sweetwater Authority, San Diego County Water Authority, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, & San Diego Gas & Electric.

In 2016, the City of Chula Vista created a Water Stewardship Plan with stakeholder input that was approved by City Council in the fall of 2016. This originally started as a water reuse framework and came out of our climate action planning efforts. Stakeholders included Sweetwater Authority and Otay Water District. In addition, the 2017 Climate Action Plan includes actions making City water use more visible and water meter data is now being posted in all City facilities on a monthly basis, alongside energy use data.

Currently, water conservation is voluntary. Two bills, SB 606 and AB 1668, that establish permanent water use restrictions throughout the state were signed into law in 2018. Otay Water District and other water providers will work with the State Water Resources Control Board over the next several years to define how the new laws will be implemented. Efficient use of water is a long-term strategy for Sweetwater Authority as implied in its mission statement. This strategy includes a general emphasis on efficient use and conservation of water, as well as specific targets and conservation measures.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Otay Water District has a multi-year performance objective in its Strategic Plan to look for and leverage savings in energy costs. Sweetwater Authority’s Sustainability Action Plan and Strategic Plan contains specific energy efficiency targets and comprehensive energy efficiency strategies. San Diego Metro, where the City’s wastewater goes, does have a cogeneration facility to capture and utilize methane gas for energy use.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Greater Cincinnati Water Works has not yet established a water efficiency goal and does not have funded programs to help customers save water. The energy utilities do not provide water efficiency as part of their energy efficiency program offerings.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

MSD is working to reduce energy consumption by auditing and improving light fixtures and the heating and cooling systems at wastewater treatment plants. MSD also self generates energy at wastewater treatment plants by using dewatered sludge to fire two incinerators.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not provide joint water and energy efficiency programs. The Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) funds a rain barrel program and Cleveland Water helps administer its implementation. The Sustainable Cleveland Municipal Action Plan also chronicles Cleveland’s water efficiency, water conservation, and water reuse and recycling strategies. Cleveland’s total energy use reduction goal (10% by 2016 and 20% by 2020 below 2010 baseline) includes energy use from pumping water, which is the largest source of energy use in Cleveland. As part of the Cleveland 2030 District, the City of Cleveland has a goal of reducing water use in its existing buildings 50% by 2030 below 2010 baseline.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Sustainable Cleveland Municipal Action Plan set targets for reducing water use in municipal facilities (20% by 2020 and 50% by 2030 below 2010 baseline), but community-wide savings targets have not been set. Additionally, the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District joined DOE’s Accelerator on Wastewater Infrastructure, and will therefore aim to improve energy efficiency at participating water resource recovery facilities by at least 30% and integrate at least one resource recovery measure. NEORSD’s Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant uses waste heat to generate electricity for use onsite.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Columbus and Columbia Gas of Ohio have partnered on water efficient spray nozzles for restaurants. In addition, Columbus’s GreenSpot program encourages residents and businesses to adopt conservation measures, which includes water efficiency measures. The GreenSpot Backyards Program provides $50 rebates towards rain barrels, native plants, and $100 towards trees. As of December 2018, GreenSpot had over 18,100 members. The City of Columbus has set a target for water efficiency to reduce gallons of treated water produced to 42,284 gallons per capita, which is a 3% reduction, by 2020. In 2017, the City saw 40,515 gallons per capita.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Division of Water and Division of Wastewater of the Department of Public Utilities have reduced energy usage at treatment plants by 5% for electricity and 50% for natural gas. This results in an 18.8% overall energy reduction (kBtu). The only energy generation from the City’s wastewater treatment plant comes from a partnership with a privately-owned digester facility, Quasar. The City pays Quasar to take sludge which Quasar uses to generate electricity. The City currently has an RFP out to provide design work for future CPH plants at both wastewater treatment plants. The city’s two waste water treatment plants saw 16,012 dry ton solids converted to energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Dallas’s water and energy utilities do not jointly administer water and energy efficiency programs. The city has watering restrictions and offers its own water efficiency programs including the New Throne for your Home program, irrigation system checks, rebate programs, multi-sector water audits, and support for minor plumbing repairs. Dallas’s Water Conservation Strategic Plan 2016-2020 calls for an average of 1% per year reduction in per capita consumption for the five-year planning period.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Dallas City Council’s strategic plan calls for energy recapture opportunities in the water and wastewater systems. The Southside wastewater treatment plant has a bio-digester that generates electricity used on-site. It is anticipated that gas pulled off of the sludge digester provides about 50% of the plant’s energy. The utility automation program is exploring and implementing items like smart meters to expand energy efficiency through the Dallas water services system.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Denver Water partnered with Xcel Energy on Xcel’s Commercial Refrigeration Efficiency pilot program by providing efficient water pre-rinse spray valves when applicable as well as water efficiency information. Denver Water also partnered with the Mile-High Youth Corps, who installed Denver Water’s efficient fixtures as well as conducted energy retrofits for lighting and other measures. Furthermore, Denver Water offers free water audits to all customers as well as toilet and irrigation rebates and incentives. As part of the city’s 2020 goals, Denver plans to reduce its use of potable water for irrigation of parks and golf courses by 22%, as well as reduce its use of potable water in buildings by 20%, as compared to a 2012 baseline. In addition to City of Denver’s 2020 sustainability goals, Denver Water’s Conservation Plan aims to accelerate the pace of water conservation in its service area and reduce overall water use from pre-2002 drought usage by 22% by 2016. That goal has been achieved. In addition, Denver Water has a number of conservation rules that apply to its service area.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Denver Water has not yet established a specific goal for energy efficiency in water services. Denver Water has implemented several energy efficiency initiatives at its pumping stations and reports its greenhouse gas emissions to The Climate Registry. As part of Denver Water’s comprehensive Operations Complex Redevelopment plan, overall energy use is expected to decrease by 5% annually. Additionally, Denver Water participates in Xcel Energy’s Process Efficiency program to identify opportunities for energy conservation specific to pumping operations. The Metro Wastewater Reclamation District also participates in Xcel Energy’s Process Efficiency program to identify opportunities for energy conservation specific to wastewater operations. The Metro Wastewater District operates a 5 MW combined heat and power (CHP) system that captures methane gas and generates electricity used on-site.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

There are currently no water efficiency goals, policies, or programs in place for the City of Detroit.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Currently, there are no programs in place for energy efficiency in water operations. Detroit’s wastewater treatment plants do not have methane self-generation capacity, but the facility’s solar panels have a generating capacity of 20 kW and produce an estimated 21,500 kWh per year.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

Though Dubuque has not established a specific target for water efficiency, the city has a rain garden assistance program, which makes funding available for buying rain barrels and building rain gardens.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Although the city has not set a target for energy efficiency through municipal water supply operations, Dubuque is converting its wastewater treatment plant to incorporate anaerobic digestion. The project will use waste water effluent for geothermal heating and cooling, in addition to methane recapture.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

To maintain its stormwater management fund, Dubuque has established a stormwater management charge. Charges are computed on residential and nonresidential property based on the number of single family units or area of impervious property.  Also, the Green Alley pilot project reconstructed existing asphalt alleys with pervious pavement surfaces in order to minimize stormwater runoff.

Last Updated: October 2013

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of El Paso does not have joint water and energy efficiency programs. The city uses reclaimed water and gives away water-efficient shower heads. El Paso Electric includes water efficiency measures in the low-income energy efficiency program and the educational LivingWise program kits installed in homes with electric water heaters. El Paso Water Utility’s current per capita use is 132 GPCD (gallons per capita per day). According to their 2014 Water Conservation Plan, the City aims to lower the per capita use to 118 GPCD by the year 2060, which equates to a decrease in per capita use of 3 gallons per person per day per decade.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

El Paso Water Utility’s updated Strategic Plan for 2015-2016 outlines strategies to increase efficiency, such as by reducing water main breaks by 10% and reducing operation budget and electricity costs by 2% over the next 3 years. The Plan also aims to reduce energy consumption by 1% and increase water capacity by 3 MGD through resource recovery by 2015. El Paso Water Utilities has installed three biogas recovery systems at wastewater treatment plants. This accounts for 25% energy savings. The utility is implementing energy management initiatives that reduce energy costs and is investing in equipment that protects critical operations from interruptions in the energy supply. The Roberto Bustamante WWTP has a cogeneration system in place.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Forth Worth does not have any joint water and energy efficiency programs in place. The city does have a SmartFlush program to replace residential toilets with high-efficiency toilets and has time-of-day watering restrictions. Fort Worth’s goals are based on the recommendations of the Texas Water Conservation Implementation Task Force, which suggested a 1% reduction in gallons of water used per capita per day per year.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Fort Worth Water Department participates in the city's energy conservation programs. In terms of energy efficiency, the Village Creek Water Reclamation Facility has been involved with Johnson Controls Inc., as part of an ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contract), to increase on-site electrical generation to 50% and reduce energy consumption by 20%. The Fort Worth Water Department participates in self-generation by producing 1500 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of methane gas from anaerobic digesters.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The water and wastewater utilities of Grand Rapids are operating under an ESCO to achieve greater efficiencies. The water utility also participates in Consumers Energy’s demand response program. The wastewater utility utilizes energy programs and rebates by the utility. Both the water and wastewater utilities also participate in the Consumers Energy Business Energy Efficiency Program (CEBEEP), which offers dedicated focus to the Municipal Water and Wastewater sector through the Industrial Energy Program (IEP). The wastewater utility utilizes energy programs and rebates by the utility. At this time, the City of Grand Rapids has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has set a goal to reduce electricity consumption for water filtration and distribution system by 5% as compared to FY2018 by FY2021. In addition, the water filtration plant and wastewater treatment plant both have ESCO agreements for the reduction of energy in their operations. The water treatment ESCO for the Lake Michigan Filtration Plant (LMFP) is projected to save 676,215 kWh a year and 223,787 cubic feet (CCF) a year with a savings of about $191,427. The wastewater department is a member of the DOE Better Buildings program and has a goal to 25% reduction in energy intensity. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy, but the construction of a CPH/digestion system is in progress at the wastewater treatment plant.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the local water and energy utilities do not offer joint efficiency programs in Hartford, Eversource and Connecticut Natural Gas’s Home Energy Solutions and Home Energy Solutions-Income Eligible programs will replace inefficient faucet aerators and showerheads. Energize CT is a portal for incentives and programs related to both energy and water efficiency measures. On Energize CT, there is an option to search for natural gas-powered water heaters and hot water-related rebates and incentives. Hartford’s Metropolitan District (MDC) is currently discussing setting a water savings target, but none is yet in place. MDC’s strategic plan includes water conservation as a priority, with several strategies in place to reduce water consumption.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The MDC has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations, but there have been a series of measures undertaken to improve the efficiency of its wastewater treatment facility. Through subsidies from an Energize CT program, the utility was able to complete energy efficiency upgrades as part of its “Bio Nutrient Removal” Phase II Project. A total cost savings for the project is anticipated to be $8.2 million from avoided consumption of 55 million kWh over the lifetime of the equipment. There is a waste heat recapture system at the wastewater treatment facility. According to the MDC, “The heat recovery project will allow heat recovered from sludge incineration at the HWPCF to be used to produce clean, renewable electricity, accounting for 40% of the plant’s electrical needs.”

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Southwest Gas and NV Energy collaborate with the Southern Nevada Water District to offer energy and water conservation tips to local business and residential customers as well as provide separate electric efficiency, gas efficiency, and water efficiency programs. Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) provides service to Henderson, Boulder City, Laughlin, North Las Vegas, and Las Vegas. These communities are all in SWG’s southern Nevada service area. Henderson is part of the SNWA group to reduce water use in southern Nevada. It also enforces water restrictions on landscape watering.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

At this time, the water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. We could not determine if the city’s water system self-generates its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs, the utility program does have a partnership with Hawaii County’s Board of Water Supply that includes providing funding for water leak detectors. Additionally, Hawai’i Energy manages the State’s Public Benefits Fund, and the Board of Water Supply (BWS) is in the process of executing an Energy Efficiency Plus services agreement.

The City and County of Honolulu Board of Water Supply has water conservation goals detailed in their 2016 Water Master Plan. This document includes a comprehensive program that looks ahead 30 years to evaluate the entire water system, quantify future demands and source options, identify necessary improvements, and balance needs and costs of providing water to residents and visitors. The City’s Board of Water Supply also has a goal of achieving an average of less than 145 GPCD (gallons per capita per day) by 2040. This goal was formed via a 2016 baseline of 155 GPCD based on current island-based regional trends and projection for future conservation.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City’s Board of Water Supply is currently implementing a $33 million “efficiency plus” contract to reduce the City’s Board of Water Supply energy use by 12% or 8 million kWh and ~6k MT CO2e annually. These projects target the water authority and wastewater treatment improvements financed by $143 million in taxable green bonds.

The city’s water system currently does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Houston has participated in load saving programs over the years with CenterPoint energy during high demands. Certain plants and associated pieces of equipment were identified to help lower electrical demand when specified. Houston has a water conservation target of reducing unaccounted water use by 11% by 2020, as well as a target to reduce residential water usage by little more than 1 gallon per day by 2019, or a 1.6% reduction over five years. The City has committed both labor and resources in support of its Waterworks Education Center, which currently serves as an education center for water-related efforts in the community. The City recently established a water conservation task force to develop conservation goals and best practices.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Houston’s Department of Public Works has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. However, the City of Houston has implemented several energy conservation upgrades and improvements for wastewater treatment plants and wastewater lift stations, as well as upgrading infrastructure with lower energy consuming lighting. The City’s water system currently does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although there are currently no joint energy and water efficiency programs, Citizens Water does provide this list of helpful tips for saving water at home. Currently, Indianapolis does not have a specified water-saving goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

As of August 2011, the Citizens Energy Group assumed responsibility for Indianapolis’s water and wastewater utilities. Citizens Energy Group pledged to operate the utilities for community benefit and to create operating efficiencies that would lower costs. Combining the city’s water and wastewater systems with Citizens' natural gas, steam, and chilled water utilities will help to reduce future utility rate increases by 25% from the increases currently projected. During 2015, Citizens Energy Group implemented measures in their operating facilities to reduce energy consumption and enhance the efficiency of their operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

JEA provides a free computer-based home energy assessment that provides a review of both water and electricity use, as well as abnormal consumption alerts, and free irrigation assessments. There is no adopted water efficiency goal for the city of Jacksonville.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City of Jacksonville has not yet established a goal or comprehensive strategy for energy efficiency in its municipal water service operations. JEA’s Buckman Wastewater Treatment Facility, however, does self-generate energy that is used on site. Buckman Wastewater treatment plant electric consumption is offset by an 800 kW generator fueled by biogas produced at the plant. Biogas produced by the sludge digestion process is used in place of a portion of the natural gas used to heat and dry the biosolids. In addition, updated controls installed in 2014 optimize the UV disinfection system, resulting in an energy reduction of 200 kWh.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although there is active cooperation between the energy and water utilities, the efforts are performed individually and supportively, while not jointly. Although KC Water has funded water efficiency rebates in the past through WaterWorks, we could not confirm if the utility still funds programs to help customers save water. KC Water has established a non-revenue water (NRW) goal to reduce commercial and actual NRW, or water loss from leakage, metering inaccuracies, unseen line losses, and theft.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Wastewater Treatment Division of Kansas City is currently working to reduce energy usage by 1% per year and assure all new equipment is as energy efficient as reasonably possible, within the context of the overall lifecycle cost of the asset, consistent with the Green and Sustainable Procurement Policy. The City’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

All Knoxville City facilities have water saving devices in place. KUB promotes national water efficiency programs on website as well as offers energy saving tips, but as of yet, there are no funded water efficiency programs in place. Knoxville has also not set a goal for water efficiency.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

KUB has no official target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations.  KUB has installed energy retrofits such as a self-generation facility on the wastewater treatment plants.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

In Knoxville, stormwater is managed through form based codes, a complete streets policy, and tax increment finance language that drives new low-impact development and green infrastructure.  The city has captured two TDEC green infrastructure grants to install innovative stormwater measures. General capital funds are dedicated to these activities on a project by project basis.

Last Updated: October 2015

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City has recently partnered with KUB to integrate water efficiency into its ongoing energy efficiency education efforts. At this point, the City of Knoxville has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

KUB has made significant investments improve energy efficiency. Plant efficiency has been optimized with installation of efficient equipment (e.g., variable frequency drives) and operational adjustments. KUB has had multiple energy assessments of its plants conducted by third parties. One such assessment was conducted by the State of Tennessee in 2015, and the results noted KUB’s plants are extremely efficient and there is little more that can be done to improve efficiency. Still, KUB strives for efficiency in its water and wastewater operations, and recent efforts include:

  • Installation of more than 550 LED lights, with an annual savings of nearly 470,000 kWh annually.
  • Participation in TVA’s Demand Response program to alleviate strain on the electric grid during periods of peak demand.
  • Improvement to the aeration system at KUB’s largest wastewater treatment plant, Kuwahee, including installation of six dissolved oxygen probes and three new sensors to optimize efficiency.
  • Implementation of an advanced technology solution to improve water loss from KUB’s water distribution system. KUB recently divided its water system into 44 district metered areas with over 100 sensors that capture flow and pressure data every five minutes. KUB implemented TaKaDu, a web-based data analytics software, to analyze the data and identify operational irregularities. These improvements are helping KUB identify and repair leaks more quickly.

In addition to water and energy conservation, KUB is a Platinum-level participant in the National Biosolids Partnership, through which all of the organic solids (approx. 33,000 wet tons per year) from the wastewater treatment process are certified as fertilizer by the Tennessee Department of Agriculture and applied to regional farmlands at no cost to the farmers. An interdisciplinary team within KUB remains active in exploring additional efficiency opportunities. Implementation of data analytics software is scheduled to support efficiency efforts.

The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: May 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Southwest Gas and NV Energy collaborate with the Southern Nevada Water District to offer energy and water conservation tips to local business and residential customers as well as provide separate electric efficiency, gas efficiency, and water efficiency programs. The Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) established a conservation goal of 199 GPCD (gallons per capita per day) by 2035. In order to meet this goal, the SNWA and Las Vegas Valley Water District use a four-pronged approach of tiered pricing, drought and water use restrictions, incentives for purchasing equipment like pool covers and green landscaping, and education and outreach. Southern Nevada has reduced its water demand from about 314 gallons per person per day to about 127 GPCD, a 36% decrease since 2002.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Las Vegas Valley Water District is pursing energy efficiency initiatives in accordance with the city’s Sustainable Energy Strategy, but a specific energy efficiency goal for operations is not in place. The City of Las Vegas Water Pollution Control Facility digesters use methane capture and have 3.3 MW of solar power generated on site. In addition, power transmitted to the wastewater plant is received from the Colorado River Commission which receives power from Hoover Dam’s Hydropower Systems.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

The city of Lawrence has not established a goal for water efficiency through the city. However, the Utilities Department uses non-potable water for operational use at the wastewater treatment plant, and is working with Parks and Rec to use non-potable water for watering medians, trees, right-of-ways, etc. and making production changes at the water plants to decrease the amount of water used for process purposes.

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

The city has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. However, Lawrence will be identifying private sewer line infrastructure that is damaged and in need of replacement, and will be working with homeowners to replace those.  At the wastewater treatment plan, methane gas is captured from the anaerobic digesters and is used in place of natural gas to operate the sludge heaters and provide heat for the building.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

Lawrence offers incentives for stormwater detention.  The property owner receives a 57% discount on their stormwater utility bill for detaining the 1% chance storm. No public funding is available for green infrastructure on public lands.

Last Updated: October 2013

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Long Beach Water Department (LBWD) has partnered with Southern California Edison to cross-promote rebates offered by both entities. A great example of this was a past rebate offered for communal high-efficiency coin/card operated clothes washer back in 2016. Additionally, LBWD hopes to partner in future direct installation programs that will streamline participation in water and energy device participation.

The Water Conservation Act of 2009, also known as the SBx7-7, set a statewide goal to reduce urban water use by 20% by the year 2020.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

In order for the State to achieve the 20% reduction goal, each retail urban water suppler is required to calculate its individual water use reduction target for the year 2020. LBWD is on track to meeting the 20 by 2020 target of 107 gallons per capita per day (GPCD). The Urban Management Plan updated every 5 years outlines all the strategies set by LBWD in meeting water savings. The most current document can be found here.

No specific targets have been set for energy efficiency. However, the department continues to consider this a priority moving forward. To date, the department has begun to analyze ways of increasing energy efficiency within the administration offices as a starting point. The City of Long Beach only collects sewage and then sends it to Los Angeles County sewer mains. The Los Angeles County Sanitation District is the wastewater treatment agency. Some of their facilities have co-generation capability.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

LADWP’s Efficiency Solutions division administers both energy and water efficiency programs, such as the Home Energy Improvement Program which includes both water and energy efficiency measures. LADWP also has a master inter-utility agreement (MIUA) with SoCal Gas, which includes co-funding of the Home Upgrade Program. This includes measures that lead to reduced water use.

In 2014, the city established a goal to achieve 20% reduction in the city's fresh water use by 2017, which has been met. Additionally, the Sustainable City pLAn calls for 22.5% reduction of per capita consumption of water by 2025, and a 25% reduction of per capita consumption of water by 2035 below baseline year 2014. LADWP offers a number of free water conservation devices such as showerheads and aerators. Also, the LADWP Landscape Incentive Program pays customers to replace turf grass with drought-tolerant plants or mulch and stormwater capture components. LADWP has also completed a water conservation potential study to outline a pathway to meeting these water conservation goals. The City of LA has also set goals in the pLAn to achieve a 50% cut in the amount of imported water purchased by the Department of Water and Power by 2025 and source 50% of the City's water locally by 2035 (based on a 2014 baseline). The sustainability plan dashboard lists progress towards pLAn goals in all categories, including water conservation and sourcing water locally.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The city has a goal to improve energy efficiency at drinking water treatment and distribution facilities, although no specific targets are available. However, the Bureau of Sanitation has an energy group at the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment plant that focuses on tracking power use and implementing energy saving measures. In 2013, the LADWP Commission adopted an aggressive policy requiring the utility to achieve 15% energy savings through energy efficiency by 2020 below baseline year 2010. The Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation operates four treatment and water reclamation plants, two of which generate electricity from captured biogas. In addition, the Digester Gas Utilization Project (DGUP) is a cogeneration project that uses Hyperion's digester gas as a renewable energy source to generate electricity and steam for use on site in plant operations. It has been awarded an Envision Platinum award.

Last Updated: March 2019

 

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Louisville Water Company has not established any water efficiency programs, policies, or goals. At this point, the City of Louisville has not established a goal or programs for energy efficiency through the city’s water service operation system.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Louisville Water Company and the Louisville Metropolitan Sewer District are both participating in the Effective Utility Management program that was developed by the Water Research Foundation, Water Environment Federation, EPA, and others to set metrics for utilities to become more efficient and sustainable operationally. MSD is following an EUM construct to reduce energy usage and is performing an energy audit/study for application at treatment and pumping facilities. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

Water Efficiency

The Madison Water Utility has established the goal to reduce per capita water consumption by 20% by 2020. To reach this goal, the utility offers rebates to residential customers who replace one inefficient toilet with an EPA WaterSense-rated High Efficiency Toilet (HET). The Madison Water Utility is installing smart water meters. When the smart metering is complete, the utility is planning on pursuing a water conservation rate structure. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Though Madison has not yet established a target for reducing energy usage in municipal water services operations, The Madison Water Utility is working with University of Wisconsin on pumping strategies to lower energy use - based on intensity of pumping and the height the water needs to be moved. The Water utility upgraded customer water meters to a wireless technology network that saves energy by eliminating trips to read meters. The Madison wastewater treatment plant captures and reuses heat on-site.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The Stormwater Commission has established numerous requirements for newly developed areas for stormwater management such as new parking lots and bioswales. Madison budgeted $80,000 annually to meet goal of installing 1,000 rain gardens on public and private land. 

Last Updated: October 2015

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of McAllen has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

While the MLGW programs focus on energy efficiency, water efficiency is included in My Account analytics and self-audits, low-income repairs, and customer communications to help preserve and protect the aquifer system. The Energy Education webpage includes information on both energy and water efficiency. The City of Memphis does not have a water efficiency goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

In 2013, the City of Memphis’s two wastewater treatment plants enrolled in the TVA-EnerNOC Demand Response Program. Under this program, the city receives recurring payments from TVA in return for agreeing to reduce electricity consumption in response to abnormally high electricity demand. Combined the plants reduce consumption by 9,000 kW and receive an annual payment of roughly $154,000 for participating. Both of the city’s wastewater treatment facilities supply biogas to the water utility for use on-site.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of Mesa has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Miami has an online a water efficiency pledge which includes energy efficiency measures, and they also offer high efficiency rebates for water fixtures. In 2006, the Miami-Dade County Board of County Commissioners adopted the Miami-Dade Water-Use Efficiency Plan through city resolution, with a goal of reducing water consumption by 1.5 million gallons per day by 2015 from a 2007 baseline. As a part of the implementation, the plan administered a variety of customer programs including rebates and free water-saving measures including shower heads, toilets, and landscape irrigation. The goal of the plan was exceeded in year 2015, and it’s estimated that the city will be able to save more than 14.25 million gallons of water per day by 2017.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

At this point, the City of Miami has not established a goal or programs for energy efficiency through the municipal water service operation system. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Focus on Energy distributes low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators, funded by a surcharge on utility bills. There are no water efficiency goals or full programs in place for the City of Milwaukee.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

MMSD’s Vision 2035 contains climate change mitigation and adaption strategies with an emphasis on energy efficiency, with the goal of being energy self-sufficient by 2035. The regional wastewater treatment plant uses landfill gas to generate energy onsite.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Minneapolis Water Treatment and Distribution Services Division (WTDS) works with Xcel Energy with all of its energy related projects to determine if there are energy efficiency rebate opportunities and incorporates this information into its decision-making process. The City is currently subsidizing Home Energy Squad visits (free for Green Zone residents) and 0% financing on weatherization improvements (for all Minneapolis residents).

The City’s Waterworks is focusing their water efficiency efforts on non-revenue water at a system level using the American Water Works Association’s Water Audit Software and methodology. Their goal is reducing the unaccounted-for water portion of the non-revenue water to 10% or less. WTDS recently completed a leak detection study of most of the water distribution system that searched for and identified leaks. In addition, the City’s residential meters are at the end of their useful life and are due for replacement. As a result, new meters will be installed over the next five years. Both of these efforts lead to either identifying or reducing non-revenue water.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Minneapolis’s Water Works (a city water park) is included in the 1.5% annual goal to reduce energy use in city facilities. Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (Metro) came very close to meeting its 2015 energy goal of reducing energy purchases by 25% from 2006 levels. After reaching 23% reductions, a new goal was set to further reduce energy purchases by 10% between 2015 and 2020. Specific strategies to meet the goals include optimizing aeration processes, installing the Blue Lake wastewater treatment plant digester, installing the non-condensing steam turbine at the Metro wastewater treatment plant, and replacing the return- and waste-activated sludge pump drives at Metro.

The Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant currently uses incinerators to burn the biosolids removed from the treated water to create energy for the operations of the plant. At the Blue Lake wastewater treatment plant, methane biogas recovered from the digester facility replaces 9 million BTU/hour of natural gas that powers the solids facility.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Metro Water Services has not established any water efficiency programs, policies, or goals. The City of Nashville does have a water loss strategy, which involves replacing old water mains, reducing leakage rates, quickly repairing leaks, and running a MeterSense Meter Data Management System that evaluates water losses.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City of Nashville has established an energy management strategy aimed at increasing energy efficiency throughout the city’s water service operation system. This strategy is focused at analyzing and optimizing energy usage in treatment plants and in watershed management operations. Nashville’s wastewater treatment plant uses biogas captured from the treatment process to generate electricity onsite.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

At this time, the energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of New Haven has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

We could not confirm if the water utility has set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system currently does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans does not have a water efficiency goal in place, but they are in the process of upgrading many of its leakiest pipes to address system water loss.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. There are not currently any programs in place for energy efficiency in water operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

While the City of New York, which is a municipal water utility, does not jointly administer energy and water efficiency programs with private energy utilities, the energy utilities themselves offer water efficiency programs as a way to reduce both water and energy usage. Consolidated Edison provides energy-efficient and low-flow devices through their energy efficiency programs. National Grid has a Commercial Direct Install Program, which offers commercial customers no-cost installation of high-efficiency water and energy savings measures.

In 2014, NYC Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) released the Water Demand Management Plan, a citywide program targeting a 5% overall reduction in water consumption citywide by year 2021. The plan consists of multiple strategies and more than 21 initiatives to achieve a target reduction of approximately 50 million gallons per day.

The Municipal Water Efficiency Program provides funding for water conservation and water efficiency projects in city-owned facilities. Under this program, DEP has identified opportunities for water savings in more than 2,000 city properties, with estimated water savings of over 9 million gallons of water per day by the end of the program. DEP has retrofitted 370 of 400 spray showers in City parks and installed high-efficiency fixtures in 240 schools to date; retrofits for 500 schools are planned. The porcelain from the schools is being recycled for an oyster bed project in Jamaica Bay as well as green infrastructure bioswales. DEP has also had success with its Water Challenge to waste water treatment plants, achieving 300,000 gallons per day in savings among 3 plants in 2015.

Under the Residential Water Efficiency Program, DEP launched a two-year Toilet Replacement Program in 2014. Phase I of the program offers $125 vouchers for qualified multifamily property owners who replace outdated toilets with high-efficiency models. Approximately 1,300 vouchers for approximately 14,200 toilets in total have been requested thus far.

The Non-Residential Water Efficiency Program promotes conservation in commercial and non-residential buildings through partnerships with the private sector. In the spring of 2013, DEP and the Mayor’s Office launched a water efficiency program called the New York City Water Challenge to Hotels, where eleven of the city’s premier hotels were challenged to reduce their consumption by 5% below 2012 levels. Similar programs targeting restaurants in 2015, and hospitals in 2016 are yielding meaningful water savings.

Additional DEP strategies under the Water Demand Management Program include Water Distribution System Optimization, Water Supply Shortage Management, and an Upstate Water Conservation Program. Most recently, DEP is developing a demand management program with our wholesale upstate customers. The first phase of this program is the provision of consulting services to assist upstate customers in developing demand management plans; the second phase will be the implementation of such plans. Demand management plans have been developed for eight upstate customers: The Village of Ossining, the Village of Tarrytown, Westchester Joint Water Works, the City of Mt. Vernon, the Village of Scarsdale, the Town of New Windsor, the Town of Greenburgh, and SUEZ Water Westchester (formerly United Water Westchester) that serves New Rochelle and other communities in lower Westchester.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

DEP completed energy audits at all 14 in-city wastewater treatment plants and has accepted over 130 energy conservation measures (ECMs) that have the potential to reduce energy use by 2.9 MMBTU per year. While there is no set annual “target” for energy efficiency, the Agency is currently working on an integration study to align those ECMs with State of Good Repair (SOGR) plans and projects so that ECMs are completed concurrently with ongoing, necessary maintenance and repair work at the 14 in-city plants. Additionally, DEP has a target to beneficially use 60% its anaerobic digester gas for thermal and/or electric energy by 2017. DEP currently produces over 3.5 billion cubic feet of anaerobic digester gas (ADG) per year, approximately 60% of which is made of methane. DEP beneficially uses approximately 40% of the produced anaerobic digester gas (ADG). These efforts support the reduction target set by PlaNYC, where city government buildings are to reduce their GHG emissions by 30% by 2017 from a 2005 baseline. Internally, DEP has implemented a Standard Operating Procedure to govern energy conservation and GHG reduction design considerations during the project design lifecycle, from the selection of the designer to commissioning of the installed equipment. Energy design guidelines for unit processes or equipment accompany the SOP and provide guidance on how to increase energy efficiency with any new facility construction or reconstruction projects.

At the Owl’s Head WWTP, there are three 1.6 MW dual fuel engines to generate electricity at the plant which offset approximately 40% of the plant’s electric needs. Moreover, The Coney Island WWTP has four 1.6 MW engine generators. These cogeneration units have been in service for over 30 years. The plant is generating over 80% of total electric power from these engines and utilizes nearly 100% digester gas production at plant. Looking ahead, DEP is designing a 16 MW cogeneration system at the North River WWTP which will be operated at an average of 10 MW and will use ADG and utility natural gas. The system, which will be in operation by 2020, will meet the plant’s base electrical demand and all thermal heating needs.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of Newark has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

PG&E partners with East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), the local water utility for Oakland, on the following water-energy efforts: joint customer audit referral programs, joint appliance efficiency upgrade rebates, and shared R&D for joint customer technology and benefits offerings. EBMUD also offers efficiency rebate programs, ranging from residential to commercial and municipal rebates on appliances and equipment, lawn conversion, and audit programs.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

EBMUD has both a Water Conservation Master Plan and a Strategic Plan to achieve its water conservation goals. Since the Master Plan’s first adoption in 1994, EBMUD customers have saved an estimated 26 million gallons per day (MGD) through conservation practices. EBMUD hopes to save an additional 39 MGD by 2040. At this time, EBMUD has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies, nor does the city’s water system self-generate its own energy through methane capture or other means such as CHP.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Oklahoma City’s water and energy utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. In 2013, Oklahoma City’s Department of Utilities implemented a Progressive Water Conservation Program. The city also partners with the American Water Works Association (AWWA), the USEPA WaterSense program, the Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE), and several local organizations to promote water conservation, such as through water-saving rebates like low-flow fixtures and dual-flush toilets.

In 2017, the Oklahoma City Water Utilities Trust and City Council adopted the Water Conservation Plan. The plan provides both internal and external strategies to engage customers in water efficient practices. Active plan implementation is ongoing.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Oklahoma City’s Department of Utilities has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. However, it does implement a mandatory odd/even day watering program which effectively cuts daily peak customer water demand, reducing electrical usage. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Metropolitan Utilities District (MUD) is a natural gas and water utility. It offers a rain shut-off device program to promote outdoor water conservation, as well as a $50 rebate for rain-sensors. At this point, the City of Omaha has not established a water savings target or goal, but its website does list plans for water conservation and water emergencies.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies, nor does it self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) provides water saving solutions and rebate programs for residential and commercial buildings that include both water and energy efficiency measures. The City has set a goal of reducing potable water consumption per capita by 20%, which has been reduced from 92 gal/day in 2012 to 83 gal/day in 2017. The City has also developed a Water Resource Strategy to address water conservation concerns.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

In 2015, the Orlando Utility Commission set a Clean Energy Strategy goal of 20% of retail sales from renewables and energy efficiency by 2020. This target will require significant investment in both landfill gas and solar generation. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: May 2019

Water Efficiency

The Park City Water Department has set a goal to reduce its per capita water consumption by 25% by 2050 from a 2000 baseline. In order to meet this goal, the water utility offers its customers Free Water Checks - water usage tests for a home's or business's irrigation system. Rebates are also available for smart controllers and efficient irrigation systems. In 2014, the Park City Water Department launched WaterSmart, providing individualized feedback to users on their water consumption and has seen a 5% decrease in water consumption to date. 

Energy Efficiency and Self-Generation

Park City's Water department has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. However, the department has integrated a number of efficiency measures into the system and explores energy impacts (and potential efficiency upgrades) as part of project construction planning.  The department also intends on integrating micro-hydro turbines into the system for electricity generation in 2014, though there are not self-generation facilities incorporated into the Park City wastewater treatment facilities just yet.

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

The City has instituted a Storm Water Quality Credit Program to raise funds through storm sewer fees for non-residential properties that use Landscaping, Water quality, underground detention measures. Discounted rates are subject to approval by City Engineer and are based on reduction in peak discharge and volume of stormwater discharged to city facilities and water quality loading reductions. Park City does not currently offer public funding for green stormwater infrastructure on public property.

Last Updated: October 2015

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The city of Philadelphia does not have joint water and energy efficiency programs. To help low-income water customers reduce water waste, the Water Department runs the Water Conservation Assistance Program, which brings efficiency through repairs to plumbing and installation of water conservation devices. Philadelphia has not yet set a water efficiency target.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for water operations. However, it has developed a utility-wide strategic energy plan containing energy efficiency goals. PWD established an agreement with Ameresco to design, build, and maintain an innovative wastewater biogas-to-energy facility at the Northeast water pollution control plant. The project, completed in 2013, uses biogas from the wastewater digesters to generate thermal energy and 5.6 MW of electricity for on-site use.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The city of Phoenix is a major contributor to the Water Use It Wisely campaign, an educational campaign aimed at increasing water efficiency across Phoenix. As a result, water use per capita has dropped 34% since 1996 and 6% in the last two years. The city also retrofits 200-250 income-qualified homes with high-efficiency fixtures and toilets. Currently, the energy and water utilities do not offer joint efficiency programs to residential or commercial customers. Additionally, the City has set nonrevenue water-saving goals at their water department, which are aimed at keeping annual water losses below 10%.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Water Services Department (WSD) partners with local electric service providers to implement energy conservation measures at its facilities. To date, energy conservation measures from these programs have saved 5.8 million kWh annually. The WSD has joined the Department of Energy’s Better Plans Program, setting a goal to reduce energy intensity (KWh/million gallons) by 25% over a 10-year period, baseline year 2015. It is also participating in the DOE’s Wastewater Infrastructure Accelerator through the Better Buildings Program. The city-owned water utility also falls under the city-wide goal to reduce energy use by 20% by 2020 from 2009 levels despite a growing population and water services. The department goal is to operate at the highest level of efficiency and cost effectiveness and has upgraded many of the facilities and pumping stations. In 2018, one of the five ESCOs contracted by the City is under contract to updated water facilities to achieve the 20% reduction target.

Digester gas is used at the 91st Avenue Wastewater Treatment Facility, in boilers to maintain digester temperatures, offsetting its thermal load by 68,000 MMBtu per year. Additionally, a large Energy Services Company (ESCO) is under contract to build and operate a facility recovery and clean-up digester gas that is currently being flared. In 2018, the City constructed and opened a $25M gas capture and treatment plant that will convert methane captured from wastewater to green gas and insert it into the natural gas pipeline—generating $6M annually in gross revenue. The facility will provide an annual energy offset of approximately 640,000 MMBtu, reducing carbon emissions by nearly 45,000 tons/year, which is the equivalent of taking over 70,000 cars off the road or planting over 87,000 acres of trees every year.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Pittsburgh’s energy and water utilities do not run any joint efficiency programs. Even though there are no established water efficiency goals, PWSA supports two fulltime leak detection crews that employ electronic correlators and acoustic sound sensors to pinpoint leaks on both utility- and customer-owned water lines.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA) has a goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 2003 levels by 2023. Old pump motors are being upgraded to more efficient equipment. ALCOSAN, the county sewer authority, uses steam generated from incineration of the sludge to heat buildings and to generate electricity.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

In collaboration with the Portland Water Bureau, Energy Trust launched a water submetering pilot in 2017 to explore potential savings opportunities from shifting participants from master-metered to individually metered water billing. With limited customer interest and competing customer priorities, staff concluded the pilot outreach as of Q2 2018 and is exploring additional ways to coordinate with the water bureau on energy and water saving measures in multifamily and commercial buildings. Staff identified high installation costs, changes to existing landlord-tenant billing arrangements, and existing plumbing configurations as barriers to participation.

In addition, the city does offer demand-side programs for customers to reduce their water usage. Energy Trust quantifies the water saved from energy-efficiency measures (called a “non-energy benefit”) and includes the associated water utility bill savings in the Total Resource Cost test, which determines incentive eligibility and the maximum level of incentive available. Energy Trust offers a variety of reduced-flow energy-efficiency measures such as showerheads and faucet aerators, as well as irrigation measures and industrial projects that reduce water consumption. The Portland Water Bureau offers free water efficiency kits to residential customers as well as toilet and irrigation rebates and incentives. The Bureau offers many programs for commercial customers including the multifamily toilet replacement program, Business Industry and Government (BIG) technical assistance program. The Water Bureau of Portland has not established a specific goal for water savings.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City's Environmental Services Wastewater Group has set a target of 1% annual reduction in energy use compared with FY2013-14. To identify and implement energy efficiency projects, the Wastewater Group is actively involved in the Energy Trust of Oregon's Industrial Energy Initiative, which provides technical assistance and financial incentives to promote efficiency projects at the wastewater treatment plant. The City of Portland’s Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant captures methane to generate heat and power in a 1.7 MW cogeneration system. In FY 2015-16, the combined heat and power (CHP) system generated 10.6 million kWh of electricity and 3.9 MMtherms of natural gas. The treatment plant will also begin to capture the remaining biogas for use as renewable transportation fuel beginning in 2019.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although Providence’s water and energy utilities not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs, the Providence Water Supply Board offers water efficiency kits for residential customers and efficiency audits for commercial and industrial customers. In accordance with R.I. General Laws §46-15.3-5.1 (c) and §46-15.8-5, the Water Supply Board established a residential average annual water use target of 65 gallons per capita per day.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City of Providence has not yet established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. However, in October 2017, the water utility received grant and rebate money that it used to implement several energy efficiency measures at its plant. There are no programs or policies in place to increase energy efficiency through the Providence Water Supply Board’s operations. The wastewater treatment plant currently self-generates some energy through biogas CHP.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department offers independent water efficiency programs for customers to reduce their water usage. They offer numerous programs, such as a Water Conservation Kit at no cost and run a Showerhead Swap Out Program to promote the use of high efficiency showerheads. The City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department implements water-efficient incentive programs, public education on water conservation issues, and tiered residential water rates. These efforts have resulted in a steady decline in gallons per capita consumed per day (GPCD). The long-term goal is to maintain a GPCD value of 90 or below for all combined uses and 50 gallons per capita, per day, through 2060.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

At this point, Raleigh’s Public Utilities Department has not established a specific goal for energy efficiency through municipal water operations. However, the City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department has implemented several energy efficiency and conservation strategies. These efforts include the use of power management software to avoid running water plant raw water pumps during peak energy hours, installation of two solar arrays, consisting of 250 kW and 1.3 MW capacities, and the conversion from aerobic to anaerobic digestion at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy. Nevertheless, the City of Raleigh is also in the design phase for the development of an anaerobic digestion facility with thermal hydrolysis and combined heat and power facilities. Under the City's current plan, the methane gas from the digesters will be cleaned and converted to compressed natural gas and service the City's bus fleet. Construction will commence in 2019. Facility design will accommodate 50 buses per day (the equivalent of 5,000 cars).

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of Reno has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Richmond is an EPA Water Sense Partner, but the city does not fund water efficiency programs. Richmond Department of Public Utilities’ RVAH2O is an integrated effort to manage stormwater, drinking water, and wastewater. Water efficiency programs fall under RVAH2O. While a water savings target has not been established, supplemental water conservation pricing is used to encourage efficient water consumption to reduce negative impacts on the City's water supply during critical times in which water must be conserved. Conservation charges are effective during periods of voluntary and mandatory conservation and are designed to help address the City's objectives to reduce the volume of water used by customers to combat reduced and constrained water supply resources.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

DPU has a target to reduce energy usage from its utility operations by 1% annually. For the RVAgreen 2050 integrated climate action plan, specific energy efficiency strategies for the water and wastewater utilities are being developed in order to meet the 80% by 2050 GHG emissions reduction target. There are currently no self-generation facilities installed in wastewater treatment plants in Richmond. The Department of Public Utilities has hired consultants to study the feasibility of methane capture for energy generation at the wastewater treatment plant. Methane capture for energy generation is also a strategy being analyzed for the RVAgreen 2050 plan.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Riverside Public Utilities serves both electricity and water to its customers, and it administers both water and energy efficiency programs. The city offers rebates for water-efficient appliances, drought tolerant landscaping and free sprinkler nozzles for both residential and commercial customers. The RPU coordinates with regional agencies, both SoCal Gas and the Metropolitan Water District as well, to offer water conservation and energy efficiency measures. SoCal Gas partners with Riverside in the delivery of the Energy Savings Assistance Program that serves income-qualified residents of Riverside. In addition, the RPU partners with Metropolitan Water District and Western Municipal Water Districts to provide water conserving measures such as toilets, washing machines, and more.

Riverside has a goal to reduce its per-capita potable water usage by 20% by 2020, compared to a 2010 baseline. In 2008, the city approved the Riverside Recycle Water Project, which will use highly treated wastewater rather than high-quality potable water to serve the agricultural and irrigation needs throughout the city. The City has targets both in the GAP as well as from the state to reduce water consumption. Goal 16 in the GAP sets a target to reduce per-capita water consumption by 20%. Additionally, Goal 17 establishes a goal to increase the use of recycled water.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

While the City of Riverside has not established a goal for energy efficiency across municipal water service operations, RPU has worked to replace or rehabilitate inefficient pumps and motors. The wastewater division of the Riverside Public Works Department self-generates electricity by capturing methane generated from the wastewater treatment plant’s anaerobic digesters. Methane is currently burned in internal combustion engines for power generation. Each engine drives a 1.1 MW generator. Waste heat is captured in an onsite heat loop which is used for process heat for the anaerobic digesters and for an onsite chiller which cools the administration and laboratory building. Bio-methane is currently being utilized at the City’s wastewater treatment facility to fuel a 1.4 MW fuel cell and two 9.9 MMBtu per hour boilers.

Last Updated: May 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of Rochester has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The City’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Sacramento provides rebates for water-efficient sprinkler systems, toilets, and clothes washers, and employs Water Wise conservation specialists to identify home and business water savings opportunities. Additionally, the Department of Utilities is in the process of upgrading the city’s meters to smart water meters. The City of Sacramento has set a goal to achieve a 20% reduction in per capita water consumption by the year 2020 below its 1996-2005 baseline or use less than 225 GPCD. Through the end of 2017, the City remains on track to meet this target. As noted in the 2015 UWMP, finalized in July of 2016, the City is on track to achieve the 20% by 2020 goal. This goal is for the City’s GPCD to be below 225 GPCD by the end of 2020. For fiscal year 2017-8, the City’s usage was 167 GPCD.

The Department of Utilities offers no-cost water leak assistance repair services and installation of water efficient fixtures to low-income homeowners through the Leak Free Sacramento Program.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

At this point, SRCSD has not established a goal for energy efficiency through municipal water operations. However, SRCSD, in partnership with Carson Energy, operates an on-site cogeneration plant at the Sacramento regional wastewater treatment plant in Elk Grove. The cogeneration plant is partly fueled by the biogas produced by the treatment plant’s digesters.

Last Updated: September 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

We could not determine if the energy and water utilities offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of St. Paul has not established a water savings target or goal, although water use has been steadily declining for the past 25 years.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies, but it has partnered with Xcel Energy in the past to improve efficiency in its facilities. The Met Council operates two wastewater treatment facilities, the Metro plant and the Blue Lake plant, both of which self-generate energy. The Metro plant burns solids in incinerators to create energy for use by the plant.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The Department of Public Utilities’ 2009 Water Conservation Plan set a goal to reduce per capita water use 25% from 2000 levels by the year 2050. In order to meet this goal, the water utility offers its customers Free Water Checks, water usage tests for a home's or business's irrigation system. Rebates are also available for water efficiency projects.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

We could not confirm if the Department of Public Utilities has established a target for energy efficiency through municipal water services operations. Public Utilities, as with every other Department in Salt Lake City Corporation, is accountable to the City’s Climate Positive 2040 Goals, which include the near-term goal of a 50% reduction in GHG emissions by year 2030. Additionally, like all Departments in Salt Lake City Corporation, Public Utilities participates in the comprehensive energy management planning which convenes annually to present updated energy efficiency projects and progress within the respective departments. Salt Lake City’s wastewater treatment plant uses biogas captured from the treatment process to generate electricity onsite.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of San Antonio offers WaterSaver rebates, free high-efficiency toilets and fixtures, large-scale retrofit rebates for water system upgrades, irrigation design rebates, and drought restrictions. The City of San Antonio has a goal to reduce water usage to 116 gallons per person per day by 2020, which is a reduction of 0.06%, and to also use 16,500 acre-ft of water overall per year by 2020. Total per capita was 117 in 2017.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

SAWS has not yet established an energy efficiency goal for municipal water operations. However, the water system tracks the energy savings from its efficiency initiatives, which include using high-efficiency pumps and motors to distribute water, generating biogas at its treatment facility, and performing lighting upgrades. SAWS does have a 20-year contract with AMERESCO to sell biogas, although it does not use the gas for self-generation.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of San Diego’s Department of Water Utilities offers water use calculators for household and landscape use. There are also rebate programs available for micro irrigation, turf removal, and rain barrels. The City of San Diego is also a member of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA), which has been partnering with SDG&E for more than twenty years on administering water efficiency programs, such as low-flow showerheads, small business water efficiency equipment, leak loss detection, and education and outreach.

The City of San Diego’s Climate Action Plan has several water savings targets and long-term strategies to reach those targets. One target is to reduce daily per capita water consumption by 4 gallons by 2020 and 9 gallons by 2035 below 2010 levels. Action 1.3 of the Climate Action Plan directs the City to support water rate structures that provide pricing signals that encourage water conservation and reuse. Action 1.4 directs the City to present to City Council for considerations a Water Conservation and Disclosure Ordinance. The core strategy is to implement an Outdoor Landscaping Ordinance that requires use of weather-based irrigation controllers.

Supporting strategies to meet these targets are to record the annual volume percentage of recycled water used and planned to be introduced through 2035 and pursue additional financial resources and incentives for implementing energy and water efficiency measures identified by the conservation and ordinances, and to promote the expansion of greywater systems.

The City is also launching Pure Water San Diego, a phased, multi-year program that will provide one-third of San Diego's water supply locally by 2035. The Pure Water Program will use proven water purification technology to clean recycled water to produce safe, high-quality drinking water. The program offers a cost-effective investment for San Diego's water needs and will provide a reliable, sustainable water supply.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City of San Diego’s Climate Action Plan encompasses both local water and wastewater utilities’ operations and include targets to reduce energy consumption at municipal facilities by 15% by 2020 and an additional 25% by 2035 below 2010 levels. Strategies to reach these targets include implementing a Smart Energy Management & Monitoring System for facilities to monitor and track energy consumption and using those results to identify opportunities for great efficiency and demand response along with pursuing LEED for Existing Buildings: Operation and Maintenance Certification for municipal facilities. San Diego just completed its CAP 2018 Annual Report, on progress towards its CAP goals.

Since 2000, the Public Utilities Department has maintained a California Energy Commission-trained Energy Audit Team. Nearly all of the Department's major facilities have energy audit reports. The Department has invested an average of $400,000 per year in energy efficiency projects which have upgraded almost all of its emergency generators, department-owned administration buildings, as well as many of its largest pump stations and wastewater treatment plants. Projects have included lighting re-lamping and control, air conditioning system improvements, and process improvements.

The City of San Diego’s Wastewater Branch has a multiple self-generating facilities and projects. The City also has a goal to capture 98% wastewater treatment gases by 2035. At the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant, methane gas is captured to fuel three generators for a total capacity of 5.7 MW. The system also produces heat which is used to heat the plant’s digesters. Methane capture is also utilized on two other sites, the Metro Bio solids Center (MBC) and the North City Water Reclamation Plant (NCWRP). The MBC has a cogeneration capacity of 6.4 MW and the NCWRP has a cogeneration capacity of 3.8 MW. The Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant has an adjacent 1.35 MW hydroelectric plant that captures the energy of the treated wastewater discharge as it flows down a 90 foot-drop from the plant to the ocean outfall.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of San Francisco and PG&E do not offer joint water and energy efficiency programs, yet the city does have water-saving rebates independent of the energy utility. The City has updated codes requiring water-efficient fixtures/systems such as toilets, irrigation systems, and shower heads. Rebates are offered for high-efficiency washers and low-flow toilets, as well as free water saving kits. The City’s water conservation program was expanded to offer custom rebates based on projected savings as well as fixed rebates for common measures, similar to its energy efficiency programs. Additionally, the City provides a rebate for residences building a graywater recycling system on-site.

San Francisco has a goal of saving 5 million gallons of water per day (1,500 million gallons per year) through conservation, by 2018 and 6 million gallons per day by 2035. In FY2017-18, water utilization within San Francisco beat that goal – consuming 64 MGD. As noted in the FY 17-18 Water Resources Division Annual Report, this improvement was supported by a comprehensive suite of policies and programs that help San Francisco residents utilize 42 gallons of water per day – one of the lowest in the state (compared to the California average of 92 gallons per day).

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Energy efficiency projects have been completed at 11 water and wastewater facilities, with additional efficiency improvements planned as part of ongoing system renewal work. For example, through the Sewer System Improvement Program, the Southeast Treatment Plant is undergoing operational improvements and upgrades that will include increased energy efficiency and resource recovery.

The SFPUC has installed large electric cogeneration plants that utilize digester gas at two of its wastewater treatment plants, Southeast and Oceanside. Though no energy-savings target has been set, these systems generate 2 MW and 1 MW at peak, respectively. The electricity generated is used on-site. The SFPUC has also installed six different solar photovoltaic projects at its facilities, including a 5 MW solar project at Sunset Reservoir.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The San Jose Municipal Water System offers free water fixtures for its San Jose customers, including showerheads and kitchen and bathroom faucet aerators, and has also started to partner with PG&E to increase conservation efforts. Silicon Valley Energy Watch includes information on water conservation in its Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Home Energy Saving Toolkit. Residents who check out a kit may keep low-flow faucet aerators, a low-flow showerhead, and water leak detection tablets.

San José Municipal Water System (Muni Water) continues to implement water efficiency practices and new technologies that meet and exceed its water savings goals for multiple agencies and programs. For example, Muni Water has already met and exceeded its California SB-X7-7 2020 goal of 145 gallons per capita per day (GPCD) by reaching 126 GPCD in 2015. This is monitored and tracked through each retailer's Urban Water Management Plan (UWMP). Muni Water is also actively working towards reaching California’s recently passed AB-1668 bill calling for an indoor residential water usage of 50 GPCD in 2030. Muni Water is working towards that goal in conjunction with Climate Smart San José, which sets the residential GPCD target to 42 GPCD by 2030. Water-efficient practices continue to remain in place and new technologies are being implemented to continue the reduction of water use to meet these goals.

San Jose Municipal Water System continues to implement its enhanced water conservation outreach efforts. San Jose’s General Plan also outlines specific water savings targets, which include reducing citywide per capita water consumption by 25% by 2040 below 2010 levels and achieving 50 million gallons per day of water conservation savings in San Jose, by reducing water use and increasing water-use efficiency by 2040.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Although there is not an energy efficiency goal established for municipal water service operations, the wastewater utility has implemented a number of energy efficiency measures, including installing more efficient fine bubble diffusers in its aeration tanks, as well as practicing pulsed, or episodic aeration, both of which significantly reduce energy demands for the aeration process. The wastewater utility has also installed LED streetlights throughout its 170-acre campus, and it continues to evaluate additional energy conservation measures. In addition, the wastewater utility is undergoing a $1.4 billion, 10-year Capital Improvement Program (CIP). The CIP has plans to invest in energy efficiency projects including $36.4 million aeration tanks rehabilitation and blower improvement projects which will reduce up to 40% of kWh and $1 million annually in secondary treatment once these projects are completed. The wastewater utility self-generates approximately half its energy supply through the capture and use of digester gas.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

To help customers reduce water use, the Saving Water Partnership (SWP)—which is made up of Seattle and its 18 water utility partners—offers water-saving rebates, community and youth education, cost-sharing with customers who retrofit old water-using equipment with new equipment that is more efficient than required by national and state codes, as well as educational campaigns for efficient water use in the landscape. Seattle City Light collaborates with Seattle Public Utilities on joint energy and water efficiency programs, often focusing on water heating.

Seattle has set a goal in its Water System Plan to reduce total average annual retail water use. The SWP has set a six-year regional conservation goal: reduce per capita use from current levels so that the SWP’s total average annual retail water use is less than 105 million gallons of water daily (mgd) from 2013 through 2018 despite forecasted population growth. In order to meet the goal, the amount of water used per person will need to decrease to offset growth. For 2015, the Saving Water Partnership met the goal, using 96.9 mgd.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The Wastewater Treatment utility, operated by King County, has an energy conservation goal of 2% per year from a 2007 baseline. Additionally, Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) has a program that is updating and modernizing its water and drainage and wastewater pump stations. Existing equipment is being updated with more energy efficient pumps. The newer facilities are also being designed to reduce the frequency of onsite maintenance therefore driving fuel energy savings also. Several of the water treatment plants generate energy on site from digester gas, and the West Point treatment plant has a combined heat and power system over its anaerobic digester which additionally produces 23,000 MWh annually.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of St. Louis’s Water Division and the energy utilities do not offer joint water or energy efficiency programs. At this point, the City of St. Louis Water Division does not have a goal to reduce water usage nor does it offer water conservation rebates or incentives to city residents.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

There is currently no goal established for saving energy through the municipal water system operations. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of St. Petersburg has not established a water savings target or goal. However, it does offer some suggestions for conserving water and offers a water saving program.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

St. Petersburg Water Resources Department has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. However, it is part of the Better Buildings Initiative. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: May 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The City of Tampa offers water efficiency programs independently of the energy utilities, such as water audits, plumbing fixture retrofits, rain sensors, irrigation system efficiency check-ups and other programs. These programs and general water usage is monitored by the Water Use Restrictions Enforcement Program. The city has a year-round restriction on water use for all water sources except reclaimed water inside the city limits. Tampa does not currently have an energy efficiency goal set in place for water services.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

Tampa’s Wastewater Department employs staggered starting of motor loads throughout their facilities to reduce transient power usage. The methane generators used to power some of the electricity of the City of Tampa Wastewater Department have reached the end of their life, but new generators are included in Tampa’s 20-year Master Plan.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. The City of Tucson follows the conservation target established by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). As of 2012, Tucson was on track to meeting its target. It also has a water plan that includes various ways to conserve water.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs. At this point, the City of Tulsa has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The city’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Virginia Beach Public Utilities provides water efficiency programs but not energy efficiency and is a member of the EPA Water Sense partnership. They offer a low-flush toilet rebate program funded through the Department of Public Works and provide water conservation tips online. Water Sense participation also includes education, participation in regional water conservation programs, and a full cost recovery rate structure that penalizes excess water usage. The City also helped fund the regional program Ask HR Green, a regional awareness campaign aimed at educating citizens on how to conserve resources and protect the environment. Currently, the City of Virginia Beach does not have a specified goal for water efficiency.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The City of Virginia Beach has not yet established a goal or comprehensive strategy for energy efficiency in its municipal water service operations. However, the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) recently completed an upgrade to the Atlantic Treatment Plant (ATP), installing a combined heat and power (CHP) system comprised of a gas cleaning system and two engine generators for power production and heat recovery. HRSD also recently received the 2019 Governor's Environmental Excellence Award Gold Medal for its SWIFT Research Center.

Last Updated: May 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

The District of Columbia offers water efficiency programs separately from the energy utilities. The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water) developed the award-winning High Usage Notification Application (HUNA) as a free service to proactively notify customers of high water use - including unknown household leaks, sprinklers accidentally left running or ruptured washing machine hoses. The HUNA has generated more than 18,000 notifications to customers since January 2006.

Washington has the goal to decrease total water use by 40% by the end of 2032. DC Water is committed to protecting and preserving the national and local water supply through encouraging water-efficient practices, products, and services. By partnering with the EPA’s WaterSense program, DC Water will offer consumers useful water-saving techniques and encourage them to look for WaterSense labeled products, when making product choices. These products use about 20% less water and perform as well as, or better than, conventional models. Sustainable DC 2.0 established a goal to decrease per capita potable water use by 20% by 2032. Supporting actions include updating the District’s building codes to increase water-efficiency standards and allow the use of alternative water systems, developing incentives for water-efficiency measure in landscaping and buildings, and piloting water efficiency projects in District Government buildings to lead by example.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

DC Water has pursued several projects to reduce energy used for wastewater treatment. They have systematically retrofitted diffuser equipment at the Blue Plains treatment to significantly reduce energy consumed through the treatment process. They have also been improving tidal gates on an ongoing basis to reduce infiltration and water treatment volume.

DC Water, the regional water utility, operates an anaerobic digester to generate electricity and steam from solid waste. The energy facility at the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant uses the solids left over at the end of the wastewater treatment process to create electricity and steam. The project reduces the energy needs of the massive plant by about a third. DC Water expects to expand the capacity and efficiency of the system to meet even more of their energy load in the near future. The Bioenergy facility opened in 2015. It uses thermal hydrolysis to maximize anaerobic digestion.  Blue Plains is the first site in North America to utilize this technology. In recognition of this project, the District of Columbia and DC Water were one of four finalists from across the globe in the “clean energy” category in the C40 Cities awards in December 2016.

Last Updated: March 2019

City-wide water efficiency and goals

Although the energy and water utilities do not offer joint energy and water efficiency programs, National Grid does offer rebates and incentives for water and energy saving technologies. Eversource does not partner with the water department, but it does offer water savings through existing energy efficiency programs.  However, no incentives have been provided for any measure that only saves water. At this point, the City of Worcester has not established a water savings target or goal.

Water plant efficiency and self-generation

The water utility has not set specific energy efficiency targets or strategies. The City’s water system does not self-generate its own energy.

Last Updated: March 2019